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  • Journal Articles

    1. An early look at parental expectation towards early childhood education among Pakistani parents in Hong Kong: The role of culture and acculturation
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2020
    Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
    It is commonly believed that ethnic minority (EM) parents tend to have low expectation towards their children’s education due to adverse social and economic status, but other studies suggest EM parents would have high expectation because they want their children to gain upward social mobility. In this study, we compared Pakistani parents’ expectation towards early childhood education (ECE) with Hong Kong parents and examined the role of acculturation in Pakistani parents’ expectation towards ECE. Participants were 73 first-generation Pakistani parents living in Hong Kong and 214 Hong Kong parents. They filled in questionnaires that measured expectation towards ECE. Pakistani parents also answered a questionnaire that captured the degree of acculturation. Results of moderation analysis revealed significant interactions between culture and child gender in all the dimensions of parental expectation towards ECE. Specifically, Pakistani parents reported higher expectation towards ECE than Hong Kong parents. Moreover, Pakistani parents generally reported significantly higher expectation for boys than for girls, while Hong Kong parents’ expectation towards girls was significantly higher than boys with a few exceptions. Moreover, regression analyses showed that integration and marginalization were positively related to several dimensions of parental expectation. These findings provide pioneer understanding about expectation towards ECE among Pakistani parents in Hong Kong and shed light on the promotion of gender-equality ECE. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Journal Articles

    2. Cool and hot self-regulation predict early achievement in Chinese pre-schoolers
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2020
    Publisher: Routledge
    This study examined early development of cool and hot self-regulation and how they were related to Chinese preschoolers' early achievement. A total of 951 children (448 girls) aged three to five in Hong Kong participated in this study. Children's self-regulation was assessed with a battery of five tasks tapping either cool or hot self-regulation; early child development was assessed with items selected from the Hong Kong Early Child Development Scales. Mothers reported children's behaviors according to items selected from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to understand children's emotional and behavior problems. The results identified a complex relationship between cool and hot self-regulation and cool and hot self-regulation were also found to predict children's achievement differently. These findings suggest the unique role of cool and hot self-regulation in early years and the importance of integrating both the cool and hot aspects of self-regulation in the research and practice arenas. Copyright © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Journal Articles

    3. Lifeworlds of nine- and ten-year-old children: Out-of-school activities in three global cities
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2020
    Publisher: Routledge
    There has been much discussion about the high performance of East Asian students in international high stakes testing, but little attention has been paid to their lifeworlds beyond school. In this article we explore findings from a survey of 627 Year 4 children (nine and ten years old) in three global cities (Hong Kong, Singapore, and Melbourne), focusing on their out-of-school activities as one aspect of their lifeworlds. The findings indicate that the most common activities in each location were comparable. Since the activities in the three locations were largely similar, the findings problematise East/West binaries which have been a feature of research and discussions in this area. Copyright © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Journal Articles

    4. Teacher-child relationship quality and Chinese toddlers' developmental functioning: A cross-lagged modelling approach
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2020
    Publisher: Elsevier Ltd.
    This study examined the dynamic association between teacher–child relationship quality and Chinese toddlers' developmental functioning. The participants, located in Hong Kong, consisted of 82 Chinese toddlers and their teachers. With a two-wave longitudinal design, teachers rated the children's developmental functioning and their own relationships with each child. The results showed that the relations between teacher-child relationships and developmental functioning differed across aspects of child development. Specifically, teacher–child relationship quality predicted and was predicted by toddlers' comprehension and personal-social skills; teacher-child relationship quality predicted but was not predicted by motor and self-help skills; finally, expressive language skills predicted but were not predicted by teacher-child relationship quality. Follow-up analyses suggested that the observed relations operated similarly for boys and girls, but differently between younger and older age groups. We conclude by discussing the study's limitations and offering suggestions for promoting developmentally appropriate childcare experience for toddlers. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Book Chapters

    5. Views of parents on a career and life planning program for junior secondary students with special educational needs: A qualitative study in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Book Chapters
    Pages: 161-175
    Year published: 2020
    City published: Singapore
    Publisher: Springer
    Career and life planning is extremely important for all adolescents in order to enhance transition outcomes, but to date, little attention has been paid to its role in education for students with special educational needs (SENs). There is no specific model in Hong Kong for supporting career and life planning for SEN students, nor has there been any research on the topic. As a result, their needs are easily overlooked and they have had fewer opportunities to explore and develop their vocational interests. To address this problem, a charitable organization in Hong Kong initiated in 2016 a two-year program for junior secondary students with SEN. The program aimed to develop a service model for supporting career and life planning for these students in Grades 7–9. Evaluation of the program included obtaining views from different stakeholders, including parents of the SEN students. In this chapter, we discuss findings from the evaluation study using a qualitative approach with data from parent interviews. Copyright © 2020 Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.
  • Journal Articles

    6. Primary school students' interests in STEM careers: How conceptions of STEM professionals and gender moderation influence
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2020
    Publisher: Springer Netherlands
    This study assessed elementary school students’ conceptions of STEM professions and its potential influence on STEM career interest, as well as the moderation effect of gender on the relationships between conceptions of STEM professionals and career interest in STEM. A total of 216 grade 3 through 5 students in Hong Kong participated in this study. They were asked to draw images of professionals in specific STEM areas, and complete questionnaires about their conceptions of STEM professionals and interests in STEM careers. Drawings were analyzed using graphic content analysis, and survey data were analyzed using moderated hierarchical regression analysis. Analysis of drawings showed that the students had inadequate understanding of engineers or scientists in the air, food, and water area. Boys were more likely to hold gender-related stereotypes about STEM professionals than girls. Analysis of survey data revealed that students’ views about STEM career implications, STEM professionals’ personal aptitudes, and social relations significantly predicted their STEM career interest. Gender significantly moderated the association of Social relations and Interest, meaning that compared to boys, girls might express higher STEM career interest when they more strongly believed that STEM professionals are able to build good social relationships with others. This study has implications for the design and implementation of pertinent lessons on STEM for elementary schools. Copyright © 2020 Springer Nature B.V.
  • Journal Articles

    7. Perceived parental stress in face of kindergarten children’s academic setback: Roles of parents’ goals and education
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2020
    Publisher: Springer Netherlands
    Previous research studies have demonstrated the link between parents’ education and parental stress level. However, these studies have not taken parents’ goal orientation into consideration. Based on the framework of goal orientation theory, we examined how parents’ goals would interact with parents’ education to affect perceived parental stress in face of children’s upsetting school experience. Participants were 189 parents of Hong Kong Chinese children studying in kindergartens. Using an experimental design, parents with various education backgrounds were randomly assigned to mastery or performance goals manipulation. The interaction between parents’ goals and parents’ education on perceived parental stress was investigated. Results from the two-way ANOVA indicated the significant main effect of parents’ goals, while the main effect of parents’ education and the interaction effect between parents’ goals and parents’ education were both nonsignificant. Regardless of parents’ education, parents in the performance goals condition reported significantly higher parental stress than those in the mastery goals condition. The findings highlight the utility of fostering parents’ mastery goal orientation to improve their well-being and capacity to cope with children’s academic setback. Copyright © 2020 Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisboa and Springer Nature B.V.
  • Journal Articles

    8. Meaning in life, connectedness, and life skills development in junior secondary school students: Teachers' perspectives in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2020
    Publisher: Routledge
    A student’s ‘meaning in life’ and his/her connectedness to school, friends and family are believed to be factors that influence the development of life skills. Teachers could be aware of these factors in their endeavours to foster ‘whole-person development’ in their students. In this small-scale study, twelve secondary school teachers participated in three focus groups and reported their perceptions of students’ meaning in life, connectedness and life skills. In general, they believed that having a definite goal means students have found preliminarily the meaning in life and the source of motivation. The teachers also observed that high achievers tend to set goals for future achievement, whereas the goals and aspirations of low achievers are much more short-term. Teachers suggested that development of students’ connectedness and life skills can be facilitated by the opportunity to converse with teachers, and the creation of a caring culture in schools that makes students feel valued. Conversely, parental expectations and strong academic orientation of the school may restrict students’ personal goal-setting. The findings have practical implications for teachers, counselling professionals and other support staff in schools because specific guidance activities can be devised to strengthen students’ connectedness, meaning in life, and life skills. Copyright © 2020 NAPCE.
  • Journal Articles

    9. Biblical stories removed, Christian beliefs retained: Religious elements in the life education curriculum of Hong Kong's Methodist Church primary schools
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2019
    Publisher: Routledge
    The Methodist Church of Hong Kong has promoted a life education programme since 2004, and has progressively applied it in all affiliated schools. This article analyses the characteristics of the latest primary school life education curriculum compiled by this Christian school sponsoring body. There are three significant findings: 1) religious elements remain rich in the four strands of life education the Universe, oneself, other people, and environment; 2) biblical stories have been removed, but Christian beliefs are integrated into the curriculum materials and summaries in terms of Christian role models and the Holy Scriptures, in order to develop students' relevant values, good character and positive attitudes towards life; and 3) the importance of prayer as a religious practise for action. The intended curriculum demonstrates how religious elements like Christian beliefs can be applied in secular education to build students' sense of meaning and purpose in life.
    [Copyright of Journal of Beliefs & Values-Studies in Religion & Education is the property of Routledge.]
  • Journal Articles

    10. Kindergarten teachers' perceptions of whole-child development: The roles of leadership practices and professional learning communities
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2019
    Publisher: Sage Publications Ltd.
    This study examined the relationships between leadership practices, professional learning communities, teachers' efficacy beliefs and perceptions of whole-child development in the context of kindergarten education. A sample of 2120 teachers from 153 Hong Kong kindergartens participated in a questionnaire survey. The results showed that principals' leadership practices had significant effects on all five professional learning community components. Leadership practices were also positively related to teachers' perceptions of whole-child development directly and indirectly through the mediation of three professional learning community components, namely a shared sense of purpose, collaborative activities and a collective focus on children's learning. Moreover, three professional learning community components (i.e. a collective focus on children's learning, deprivatized practice and reflective dialogue) were positively associated with teachers' perceptions of whole-child development via their efficacy beliefs. The findings support the mediating role of professional learning communities in developing kindergarten teachers' collaboration for improving their efficacy beliefs and perceptions of the whole-child development of children. Kindergarten principals play a key role in cultivating a supportive culture and facilitating teacher learning.
    [Copyright of Educational Management Administration & Leadership is the property of Sage Publications Ltd.]
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