In many societies, policy-makers have formulated different policies to strengthen moral development, character attributes and/or citizenship for young people. In this review, we examined the related education policies in the Asian (Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore) and Western (the United Kingdom and the United States) contexts and compared them in terms of their aims, core values, strategy, lesson time, evaluation, curriculum materials, and teacher training. With particular reference to Hong Kong, the review shows that there are many challenges for the "moral and citizenship" education. These include a lack of theory and research based policy development, stagnant progress in the past two decades, blurred concepts in the related policies, weak emphasis on related education in schools, problems of the "penetrative" approach, lack of validated and standard curriculum materials, problems in implementation strategies and tactics, and unsystematic evaluation. Copyright © 2021 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.