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  • Journal Articles

    1. Teachers' belief-and-practice gap in implementing early visual arts curriculum in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Journal of Curriculum Studies, 52(6), 857-869, 2020
    Year published: 2020
    Publisher: Routledge
    Hong Kong, as a capitalist society, has an achievement-driven education system. Visual arts have become a marginalized learning area, especially in early childhood education. Although 'art and creativity' is one of the six learning domains for early childhood education in the kindergarten curriculum guide in Hong Kong, product-oriented and craft-based art activities are commonly practiced in kindergarten classrooms. This study observed 33 classrooms and interviewed 29 teachers for a total of 409 minutes to discuss issues surrounding the early childhood art curriculum in Hong Kong and the difficulties teachers face responding within the context. Through the triangulation of observations, interviews, and documentation analysis, the teachers indicated that they are facing a dilemma regarding teacher-directed and child-centred orientations towards teaching children visual arts. To sustain the 'third space' of early childhood visual arts education, three main areas are considered: (a) introducing visual arts as an alternative narrative in early childhood curriculum, (b) considering that children's creative behaviours are performative, and (c) positioning teacher education in relation to the visual arts. Copyright ©Routledge.
  • Journal Articles

    2. Re-examining teaching and learning in citizenship education: A tale of two Chinese cities
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Journal of Curriculum Studies, (0), - , 2019
    Year published: 2019
    Publisher: Routledge
    This article compares and re-examines citizenship education (CE) teaching and learning in Hong Kong (HK) and Guangzhou (GZ), China. It questions two stereotypical perceptions-that China schools indoctrinate students, and that CE lessons in HK are more open than those in mainland China. Data are drawn from some 30 lesson observations, 1,200 questionnaires, and 80 teacher/student interviews from six sampled HK and GZ schools. The study used NVivo to examine qualitative data, and employed hierarchical linear modelling with the help of SPSS and AMOS to analyse quantitative data. The findings suggest both cities are similar in terms of teaching/learning CE, due to globalization and domestic changes, and have similar CE conditions more conducive to open pedagogies (e.g., inquiry-based approaches) than indoctrination. HK's greater socioeconomic openness does not ensure its CE is more open than GZ's, for pedagogical and non-pedagogical reasons.
    [Copyright of Journal of Curriculum Studies is the property of Routledge.]
  • Journal Articles

    3. Cultural ideology matters in early childhood curriculum innovations: A comparative case study of Chinese kindergartens between Hong Kong and Shenzhen
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Journal of Curriculum Studies, 50(4), 560-585, 2018
    Year published: 2018
    Publisher: Routledge
    This study forms part of a wider comparative research project investigating the mechanisms and outcomes of school-based curriculum (SBC) development in kindergartens between the two neighbouring cities of Hong Kong and Shenzhen, under the umbrella of ‘one country, two systems’. This comparison will help to clarify how sociocultural contexts may affect early childhood curriculum (ECC) innovations by comparing the kindergartens of socialist and capitalist China. Data are presented from qualitative case studies of four kindergartens—two in each city—corresponding to the three levels of curriculum analysis and comparison: intended curriculum, implemented curriculum and curriculum ideology. Comparative analyses revealed that the SBCs of the four cases were different but all tended to balance and integrate diverse approaches in terms of curricular and pedagogical practices. The commonalities of SBCs in Hong Kong and Shenzhen kindergartens were due to shared cultural values, propelled by both ‘modernization’ and Chinese traditions, while the unique characteristics of SBC practices in each society were shaped by different social contexts. The educational philosophy of progressivism has greatly influenced ECC innovations in the Chinese kindergartens to varying degrees and in different ways. Implications of this comparative study are also presented for future research and practice.
    [Copyright of Journal of Curriculum Studies is the property of Routledge. Full article may be available at the publisher's website:
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220272.2018.1428367]
  • Journal Articles

    4. Marketized private tutoring as a supplement to regular schooling: Liberal Studies and the shadow sector in Hong Kong secondary education
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Journal of Curriculum Studies, 46(3), 361-388, 2014
    Year published: 2014
    Publisher: Routledge
    Around the world, increasing numbers of students receive after-school private supplementary tutoring. Such tutoring may be provided through informal channels or by companies, and it may be received one-to-one, in small groups or in large classes. The tutoring is commonly called shadow education since its content mimics that of regular schooling. The spread of shadow education is part of a global shift of balance with increased roles for the private sector. Hong Kong is among the societies in which shadow education enrolment rates are particularly high. Much of the shadow education focuses on techniques for performance in external examinations, and is not consistent with the emphases stressed by teachers and the government. This paper focuses on a newly introduced subject called Liberal Studies in which the tensions are especially visible. Although the official curriculum emphasizes creativity and critical thinking, many students have sought large-class tutoring focused on formulae for passing examinations. Interviews exposed the needs that the students felt were not being met in their schooling. The findings illustrate some of the complexities in relationships between the public and private sectors. Viewed in a wider context, the paper illuminates some of the mechanisms and effects of marketization, which are increasingly evident globally.
    [Copyright of Journal of Curriculum Studies is the property of Routledge . Full article may be available at the publisher's website:
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220272.2014.883553]
  • Journal Articles

    5. School knowledge, the state and the market: An analysis of the Hong Kong secondary school curriculum
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Journal of Curriculum Studies, 29(3), 329-349, 1997
    Year published: 1997
    Publisher: Routledge
  • Journal Articles

    6. The functions of Hong Kong's Chinese history, from colonialism to decolonization
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Journal of Curriculum Studies, 42(2), 263-278, 2010
    Year published: 2010
    Publisher: Routledge
    This paper examines the nature and socio-political functions of Hong Kong's 'Chinese history curriculum' during colonialism and since decolonization and argues that these functions have resulted in a curriculum characterized by rote-learning and geared towards social control. Students are initiated into the traditional, orthodox view of Chinese history and prescribed moral judgements. Consequently, there is little chance for independent thinking on the part of students.
    [Copyright of Journal of Curriculum Studies is the property of Routledge . Full article may be available at the publisher's website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220271003599165]
  • Journal Articles

    7. The formation of a school subject and the nature of curriculum content: An analysis of liberal studies in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Journal of Curriculum Studies, 41(5), 585-604, 2009
    Year published: 2009
    Publisher: Routledge
    This essay explores the nature of the curriculum content of liberal studies--a core school subject in the new senior secondary curriculum in Hong Kong--with reference to the curriculum- making processes entailed in the formation of that subject. The central thesis is that a school subject is introduced to schools and classrooms as a distinct representation of content embodied in curriculum materials, entailing a theory of content--a special way of selecting, organizing, and framing the content for social, cultural, educational, curricular, and pedagogical purposes. Knowing the content of a school subject thus entails knowing more than the content per se; it entails an understanding of the underlying theory of content, which is necessary for disclosing and realizing the educational potential embodied in the content.
    [Copyright of Journal of Curriculum Studies is the property of Routledge . Full article may be available at the publisher's website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220270902767311]
  • Journal Articles

    8. The effect on the school curriculum of Hong Kong's return to Chinese sovereignty in 1997
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Journal of Curriculum Studies, 20(6), 509-520, 1988
    Year published: 1988
    Publisher: Routledge
    This paper aims to analyze the impact of the return of Hong Kong's sovereignty to China on the secondary school curriculum. The author argues that curriculum controls, such as curriculum guidelines provision, subject content selection and textbook selection, will be the tools for influencing the curriculum. It is concluded that the definition of curriculum is to be much determined by the state bureaucracy.
  • Journal Articles

    9. Teacher receptivity to curriculum change in the implementation stage: The case of environmental education in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Journal of Curriculum Studies, 32(1), 95-115, 2000
    Year published: 2000
    Publisher: Routledge
    This study examines teacher receptivity to the curriculum change embodied in the new environmental education guidelines in Hong Kong. A questionnaire survey, based on a 'receptivity to change' instrument, was distributed and case studies conducted. The analyses revealed that such variables as the perceived non-monetary cost-benefit of implementing the guidelines, perceived practicality, perceived school and other support, and issues of concern were predictors for teachers' behavioural intentions towards promoting environmental education. The qualitative part of the research also found that, in addition to the factor of perceived non-monetary costbenefit, the dominance of organizational factors may work to shape teachers' receptivity to environmental education.
    [Copyright of Journal of Curriculum Studies is the property of Routledge. Full article may be available at the publisher's website:
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/002202700182871]
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