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  • Journal Articles

    1. Secondary school students’ enjoyment of English private tutoring: An L2 motivational self perspective
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2020
    Publisher: Sage Publications Ltd.
    As many students worldwide receive second language (L2) English private tutoring (EPT) that shadows school curricula, examining student perceptions of it is essential to understanding their L2 learning. From the L2 Motivational Self perspective, students’ ideal L2 self, ought-to L2 self and L2 learning experience are linked to student enjoyment of EPT. This study explores these links via analysis of survey responses of 2,216 Secondary Six (Grade 12) students who attended a company’s L2 EPT lectures in Hong Kong. Most of these students (80%) enjoyed EPT. They were more likely to enjoy EPT if they perceived more financial resources in their families, attended schools taught in Chinese (students’ first language), had internalized instrumental goals, liked English, were not influenced by advertisements to attend EPT, attended face-to-face tutoring (rather than video tutoring), had a specific tutor, or liked their EPT tutor more than their English teacher. This study offers theoretical implications and directions for further research in EPT and L2 motivation. Copyright © 2020 The Author(s).
  • Journal Articles

    2. Predictors of in‐school and out‐of‐school sport injury prevention: A test of the trans‐contextual model
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2020
    Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
    The current study aimed to predict secondary school students’ motivation toward sport injury prevention in “in‐school” and “out‐of‐school” contexts, and their sport injury prevention behavior at 3‐month follow‐up using the trans‐contextual model (TCM). Hong Kong secondary school students (N = 1566; mean age = 13.34 years, range = 11 to 19; female = 49.42%) were recruited. Participants were asked to complete a survey comprising previously validated scales measuring TCM constructs at baseline and a measure of sport injury prevention behavior at follow‐up three months later. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the hypothesized paths among TCM constructs. A SEM specifying hypothesized paths among TCM variables showed acceptable fit with the data (χ²(29) = 418.55, CFI = .93, TLI = .90, and RMSEA = .09, 90% CI [.09, .10], and SRMR = .05). Findings supported tenets of the TCM: the effects of perceived autonomy support from PE teachers on in‐school autonomous motivation toward injury prevention, the trans‐contextual relationship between students' “in‐school” and “out‐of‐school” autonomous motivation toward injury prevention, and the effects of autonomous motivation toward injury prevention on social cognitive variables and subsequent sport injury prevention behaviors. Results supported the tenets proposed within the TCM in predicting students' “in‐school” and “out‐of‐school” autonomous motivation toward sport injury prevention. Findings underscore the potential importance of autonomy support from PE teachers in facilitating students’ sport injury prevention behaviors. Further longitudinal and intervention research is warranted to establish temporal and causal effects of TCM variables in sport injury prevention. Copyright © 2020 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • Conference Papers

    3. How do teachers facilitate children’s free play?
    Document Type: Conference Papers
    Conference: The 20th Pacific Early Childhood Education Research Association International Conference (PECERA): Childhood of Tomorrow (2019: Howard Civil Service International House, Taipei, Taiwan)
    Learning through play and free exploration are emphasized in the recent curriculum review in Hong Kong. This experimental project aims to investigate how children play with and without teachers’ direction instruction. Thirty-one children aged 4-5 (15 boys and 16 girls) attending a typical Hong Kong preschool participated in this study. The children are randomly divided into the control group and experimental group. The study consists of three phases: (1) Pre-test: Play without instructions for 30 minutes. A set of block play newly bought by the preschool is presented to children. Children are free to play and explore with the block as they like. (2) Treatment: Play with teachers’ instructions. In two-week period, the teachers will provide the experimental group with various instructions like picture book, puppet or probing whereas the control group will keep playing with the block set on their own. (3) Post-test: Play without instructions for 30-minutes for both groups. All block playing sessions will be videotaped. Behaviours of the children will be coded and analyzed based on the nature of play, content of play and complexity of ideas to delineate how teachers’ input may influence the quality of play and free exploration. Copyright © 2019 20th Pacific Early Childhood Education Research Association International Conference (PECERA).
  • Journal Articles

    4. Neo-liberal paradox of teaching among ESL teachers of ethnic minority students in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2020
    Publisher: Routledge
    This article reports on a qualitative study investigating the teaching experiences of ESL teachers of ethnic minority students from South Asian countries. Eight ESL teachers from two secondary schools in Hong Kong were interviewed. Informed by the concept of neoliberal governmentality, this study explores the shaping effect of neoliberal education on these teachers’ professional development, their negotiation with the current examination-oriented educational policy, and the overall neoliberal discourse in education. The teachers were found to be ambivalent in their contradictory positions regarding whether to encourage or prohibit the use of heritage languages in English learning, whether to conform to the curriculum or develop new materials and try out new ways, and how to unravel social responsibility for ethnic minority groups’ development. This study has implications for the importance of awareness of the impact of macro-level neoliberalism on micro-level educational practices among teachers, principals, and policy makers, and for the necessity of developing teacher education programmes to prepare teachers with a particular concern about the well-being of children (especially those in underprivileged communities), and enable them to think critically about scripted curriculum packages and to work within more diverse and challenging contexts. Copyright © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Journal Articles

    5. Using homework tutoring to promote self-regulated learning in deprived pupils: A case study in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Education 3-13, 2020
    Year published: 2020
    Publisher: Routledge
    With the aim to provide proper educational support for socially and economically deprived students, the present study examined a homework tutoring programme that focused on self-regulated learning (SRL) and implemented at an afterschool setting in Hong Kong. The programme was designed according to Zimmerman's SRL model, integrated explicit and implicit instruction, and took a social psychologist perspective. The findings from multiple sources of data showed that the overall effect of the programme was observed as small to moderate yet the tutees' positive changes in the use of four SRL strategies were reported: managing time, monitoring the use of cognitive strategies in doing homework, maintaining motivation and handling distraction, and arranging the sequence of assignments. The present study confirms the role of SRL-based homework tutoring in the promotion of deprived pupils' SRL capacity. This result may encourage more research efforts in the future to explore proper educational support for deprived students at after-school settings, with an ultimate aim to reduce the gap of inequality in education. Copyright © 2020 ASPE.
  • Journal Articles

    6. Problematising students' preference for video-recorded classes in shadow education
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Educational Studies, 2020
    Year published: 2020
    Publisher: Routledge
    Private tutoring, or shadow education, has become a widespread phenomenon globally. Its growth can be attributed to the expansion of cram schools offering live and video tutoring. This study critically analyses students' perceptions of video-recorded classes. Specifically, it problematises students' preference for video-recorded classes by exploring their reasons for enrolment and their perspective on the benefits and shortcomings of video tutoring in a Hong Kong cram school. It adopts an exploratory sequential mixed-methods approach. Data were collected through classroom observations, student interviews and questionnaire. The findings reveal that students chose video-recorded classes mainly because of their flexibility of timeslots and locations. A critical discussion of the findings unveils students' contradictory attitude towards the presence of tutors in classrooms, their preference for passive learning and anxiety about tutor–tutee interactions. This study contributes to the growing literature of shadow education and offers implications for potential policy change in the private tutoring context. Copyright © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Journal Articles

    7. Response to COVID-19 'Now i send you the rays of the sun': A drama project to rebuild post-COVID-19 resilience for teachers and children in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2020
    Publisher: Routledge
    This response to COVID-19 introduces a Hong Kong drama education project that aims to support teachers' and children's return to school after the easing of COVID-19 pandemic. A pilot workshop has been conducted to explore and evaluate the approach of the project and to identify the needs of the teachers under the pandemic. Preliminary observations show that the integrated use of play, process drama and integrated arts education can enhance the teachers' resilience in a crisis situation. Apart from providing them with timely, practical and multi-pronged pedagogical support, the workshop methodology also promotes their personal wellbeing. Copyright © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Conference Papers

    8. Challenge and opportunity: Principal leadership for whole-school participation in career education in diverse school contexts of Hong Kong
    Document Type: Conference Papers
    Conference: The 33rd Annual University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA): Where y’at: Validating subaltern forms of leadership and learning with/in and outside of schools (2019: Hilton New Orleans Riverside, New Orleans, USA)
    Policies of career education facilitate the sustainable development of young people in aspirations, identities and pathways of their career development in senior secondary education. In Hong Kong, the policy has been implemented in public schools since 2014. Principals are responsible for leading a whole-school participation in career education for all students. However, student population of individual schools is more diverse than where they were due to a large number of immigrants from different parts of mainland China and other Asian societies. Many principals have experienced the challenges of increasing diversity in schools, if not any opportunity. This paper aims to explore principal leadership for whole-school participation in student career development. Two research questions are asked: What are the challenges of whole-school participation facing the principals in diverse contexts of individual schools? To what extent do students with different cultural, religious and social backgrounds experience the importance of career development in senior secondary education? We adopted a case study of three secondary schools located in different school districts in Hong Kong. The principals were invited to individual semi-structured interview, while 4 to 7 students from each grade of senior secondary education were invited to a focus-group interview in each school. The findings unveil discrepancy of the expected outcomes of the education between the principals’ experiences of the challenges from a leadership perspective and the students’ experiences of any opportunity for their career development from a user perspective. Potential for positive change through the participation in CLP education varies depending on individual students’ awareness, aspiration and exploration of personal career goal. Implications of principal leadership for whole-school participation in career education in relation to equal opportunity for all students are also discussed. Copyright © 2019 UCEA
  • Conference Papers

    9. Is principal leadership for social change through career education possible? A case study of three secondary schools in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Conference Papers
    Conference: The British Educational Leadership, Management and Administration Society Annual Conference 2019 (BELMAS 2019): Educational Leadership for social change (2019: Jury's Inn, Hinckley Island, UK)
  • Conference Papers

    10. What challenges do teachers who support students’ career development in secondary education face?
    Document Type: Conference Papers
    Conference: The 2019 Asia Pacific Career Development Association Annual Conference (APCDA): Navigating Career Development in the Age of Industry 4.0 (2019: RMIT University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam)
    In Hong Kong, career and life planning education facilitates the sustainable development of people, particularly the youth, in exploring career aspiration, identities and pathways at the stage of secondary education. This paper aims to explore career teachers’ experience in support of career development of students in the school. The teachers need to overcome a challenging dilemma between the school structure and limited resources. Improvement of the policy of career and life development education are also discussed. Copyright © 2019 APCDA.
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