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  • Person: Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching
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  • Journal Articles

    1. Chinese writing development of Kindergarten students over 12 months: A longitudinal study based in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2019
    Publisher: Emerald Publishing Limited
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the writing development of Hong Kong kindergarten students over 12 months. They attended 18 kindergartens territory-wide and were followed from June 2002 to June 2003 for the collection of three waves of teacher-rated data at six-month intervals.Design/methodology/approach: First, the construct validity of the translated and culturally adapted version of Morrow's (2012) checklist which assesses writing development was confirmed, considering that the students attended Hong Kong kindergartens who wrote in the Chinese language. The multilevel analysis, which employed corrected measures captured through Wolfe and Chiu's (1999a, 1999b) five-step Rasch scaling method for a common frame of reference, estimated the effects of the factors, namely, student age, gender, class level and schools.Findings: The children's progress over the second six months was also apparently much smaller than the first SIX months for this cohort. The dramatic slow-down in the second six-month period for both cohorts might be partly attributed to the peculiar arrangement of schooling at that time.Research limitations/implications: The recommendation from this study is that random sampling and student test scores on writing need to be taken for the identification of the general trend of young children's writing development in Hong Kong, as well as other Chinese communities alike.Originality/value: The profile of the student's emergent writing development at each six-month follow-up and over the 12 months was explored. Differences between the groups based on age, gender, class level and school in terms of student writing development on average were statistically significant. Copyright © 2019 Emerald Publishing Limited.
  • Journal Articles

    2. Chinese immigrant students in Hong Kong: Exploring performance and influences on their civic learning
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: PsyCh Journal, 2019
    Year published: 2019
    Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
    Guided by the “opportunity–propensity” (O‐P) framework, this study explores how immigrant status might affect students’ civic knowledge through an antecedent factor (socioeconomic status [SES]), opportunity factors (civic learning at school and civic participation at school), and propensity factors (perceived open classroom climate, perceived student–teacher relationship, and perceived importance of conventional citizenship). The data were taken from the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) 2016. The sample comprised 2,544 eighth graders from Hong Kong. Results of two‐level path analysis showed that, at the student level, mainland Chinese immigrant grant students had a higher level of civic knowledge. Although perceived open classroom climate and perceived importance of conventional citizenship were found to be two positive mediators and family SES (via civic learning at school) was a negative mediator, the mediation effects at the student level were quite small. In contrast, quite a large amount of variance was explained at the school level: School‐aggregated immigrant status was positively linked to school‐aggregated civic knowledge and negatively via school‐aggregated students’ family SES via school‐aggregated civic learning. Copyright © 2019 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
  • Journal Articles

    3. Predicting primary students' self-regulated learning by their prior achievement, interest, personal best goal orientation and teacher feedback
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Educational Psychology, 2018
    Year published: 2018
    Publisher: Routledge
    Self-regulated learning (SRL) is of great importance to academic achievement and life-long learning. This study aimed to examine the prediction of three processes of primary students' SRL using students' prior achievement, interest in mathematics, personal best goal orientation, and their perceptions of teachers' feedback one academic year earlier. The SRL processes were planning, monitoring, and adaptive reactions. The sample comprised 2972 (1608 females and 1364 males) primary school students in Hong Kong. Multi-level path analysis determined that prior achievement, interest in mathematics, personal best goal orientation, and feedback predicted students' planning, monitoring, and adaptive reactions after one academic year, with interest and personal best goal orientation being the strongest predictors. Strategies for promoting interest in mathematics and developing personal best goal orientation among primary school students are discussed in the article. Copyright © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Conference Papers

    4. Civic learning in Hong Kong: Starting from schools
    Document Type: Conference Papers
    Conference: The Asia Leadership Roundtable 2017: Seven years on: The state of the Asian knowledge base? (2017: Hotel Regalees, New Taipei City, Taiwan)
    As classroom and schools are the “miniature political communities” that help incubate students’ civic experiences, they can influence their civic development and civic participation cognitively and behaviorally.Meanwhile, principals and teachers can act as school-site change agents for the development of civically responsive and responsible youngsters at the formative age. However, past studies have not extensively examined how participative classrooms lead to better civic learning and active civic lives in schools. Neither has any responded to the current political circumstances in Hong Kong by relating controversial issues such as students’ democratic values and civic attitudes to future civic engagement including illegal protest. To fill this research gap and provide policy directions, we propose and test amodel of how political socialization at school affects development of early adolescents’ democratic values, attitudes to civic institutions and the nation, and aspirations for conventional and unconventional civic action. As young people in Hong Kong are increasingly active and radical in recent years (e.g., Scholarism, Occupy Central Movement), we examine their possible roots. Specifically we testmultilevel structural equationmodels on a sample of 2902 Hong Kong secondary Form 2 students from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA)’s 2009 International Civics and Citizenship Education study (ICCS). These young adults were at the age when the survey was conducted. Their aspirations expressed thenmight have translated into actions now. The results can inform policies to help schools fulfill their civic mission and nurture “politically literate, participatory, and critically thinking” future citizens.
  • Conference Papers

    5. Differences in the perception of feedback between Hong Kong primary school students and their teachers
    Document Type: Conference Papers
    Conference: The Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Society Conference (PROMS 2012) (2012: Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, China)
    Background: Abundant research has been undertaken on the importance of teachers’ feedback to the school achievement of students. However, focus has rarely been placed on the differences between the perception on feedback of students and teachers. Being a part of the study which was sponsored by a General Research Grant awarded by Research Grants Council of UGC, Hong Kong (Project Number 844011), we attempted to find out the differences between students’ and teachers’ perception on feedback. Aims and Keywords: The study aimed to find out the differences between Hong Kong primary school students and teachers in their views to feedback. Sample: Four thousand five hundred and seven students between primary 3 and primary 5, 132 teachers from 26 Hong Kong primary schools were sampled in the study. Method: A 42-item instrument with 4-Likert point response scale was constructed by the research team to collect the responses from Hong Kong students and teachers of their perception on 6 dimensions in feedback. Multidimensional Rasch analysis was conducted on the collected data with CONQUEST 2.0. Results: The results showed that: (1) item-fit was between 0.5 and 1.5 for all items except one; (2) Rasch person reliabilities in the 6 dimensions ranged from 0.72 to 0.86 and item reliabilities was 1.00; (3) the effect size of the respondents’ status (teacher or student) in the 6 dimensions ranged from 0.32 to 0.64. Conclusions: In this study, there are moderate differences between the students and teachers in the perception on the source of feedback, the effectiveness of feedback and the function of feedback. On the other hand, there are little differences among the two types of respondents in the perception on the goodness of feedback, the focus/target of feedback and the expectation of feedback.
  • Conference Papers

    6. A Rasch analysis on the development and validation of mathematics test for use by primary five student in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Conference Papers
    Conference: The Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Society Conference (PROMS 2012) (2012: Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, China)
    Background: This study was part of a large-scale quasi-experiment on the causal relations among feedback, self-directed learning, and mathematics achievement of primary students in Hong Kong. The larger study was sponsored by a General Research Grant awarded by Research Grants Council of UGC, Hong Kong (Project Number 844011). Aims and Keywords: The study aimed to develop and validate, using a Rasch approach, of an instrument for measuring mathematics achievement of Primary five students. Sample: The sample comprised 1,368 Primary 5 students from 16 Hong Kong schools who participated voluntarily. Methods: A pre-test/post-test design was used for the larger study. Data for this study were collected at the pre-test in form of a mathematics test completed during class-time. A 35-item mathematics test was developed after careful analysis of the local curriculum, and in consultation with teachers on the suitability of the test for students by the end of Semester One of Primary 5. Rasch analysis with the Winsteps software (version 3.70) was then used to validate the instrument. Results: The results showed that: (1) item-fit was between 0.5 and 1.5 for all items except one; (2) Eigen value of the first contrast of the Rasch PCA of Residuals was below 2.0; (3) Rasch person and item reliabilities were 0.80 and 1.00 respectively; (4) there was good alignment between item difficulty and student ability; (5) no gender-DIF was found in the items. Conclusions: Measurement validity is one of the most crucial factors for the overall validity of any research study. This study developed a valid and reliable instrument for measuring mathematics achievement of Primary 5 students.
  • Conference Papers

    7. Effect of academic aims, goal setting and planning on academic achievement of secondary students in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Conference Papers
    Conference: The Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Society Conference (PROMS 2012) (2012: Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, China)
    Background: This study is part of a larger study entitled “Secondary Students’ Independent Learning” funded by a Competitive Earmarked Research Grant (Number HKIED 8005/03H) of the Research Grants Committee, Hong Kong SAR Government. The original project aimed to establish and validate with empirical data, a conceptual framework of self-directed learning, the characteristics and processes involved and their relations with academic achievement of secondary students. Aims and Keywords: This study aimed to explore the effect of academic aims, goal setting and planning on academic achievement of secondary students. Sample: The sample comprised 14,846 students currently enrolled at Secondary 1 to Secondary 6 (except Secondary 5) from 23 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Methods: Students completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising 4-point Likert items (1: Strongly Disagree, 2: Partly Disagree; 3: Partly Agree, 4: Strongly Agree) on academic aims, goal setting, planning, and other aspects of self-directed learning not included in this study. Each construct was measured by five items. Measurement quality of the scales according to the framework was established using the Winsteps software (version 3.72.3). Based on Rasch scores of the latent variables and standardized scores of Chinese, English and mathematics, structural equation modeling was undertaken using Mplus (version 6). Results: Analyses indicated that academic aims and academic planning both directly predicted academic achievement, with educational aims being the stronger predictor. Academic goal setting indirectly predicted academic achievement via academic planning. Consistency was found both in the structure and in the effects of the predictor across gender and year levels. Conclusion: The study shows that self-directed learning has positive effect on academic achievement of secondary students of both gender and all year levels.
  • Book Chapters

    8. Physical education in higher education in Hong Kong: The effects of the intervention on pre-service sports coaches' attitudes towards assessment for learning used in sports
    Document Type: Book Chapters
    Pages: 359-392
    Year published: 2013
    City published: Dordrecht, The Netherlands
    Publisher: Springer
    This study examined the immediate and long-term effects of an Assessment for Learning intervention on pre-service sports coaches’ attitudes towards Assessment for Learning in sports. The hypothesis that the intervention had an immediate effect on the experimental group towards Assessment for Learning was only partially supported by this research. Nevertheless, the hypothesis that the intervention had a long-term effect was supported. This study has successfully shown that the intervention can be very effective in developing competencies in Assessment for Learning among pre-service sports coaches in Hong Kong. Through the intervention, the pre-service sport coaches made positive changes in attitudes towards Assessment for Learning, as used in sports teaching, and recognised its effect on student learning. Their positive responses serve as a “green light” for introducing Assessment for Learning for all in-service sports coaches and physical education teachers in Hong Kong.
    [Copyright © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.]
  • Conference Papers

    9. A cluster analysis of the patterns of Hong Kong primary students' attitude towards feedback and their mathematics achievement
    Document Type: Conference Papers
    Year published: 2013
    Conference: 10th EASP (East Asian Social Policy) International Annual Conference
  • Conference Papers

    10. Enhancing learning and teaching: School continuous improvement through self-directed learning oriented assessment: Theory, strategy, and impact
    Document Type: Conference Papers
    Year published: 2011
    Conference: 24th International Congress for School Effectiveness and Improvement
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