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  • Journal Articles

    1. Destigmatizing psychosis: Investigating the effectiveness of a school-based programme in Hong Kong secondary school students
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Early Intervention In Psychiatry, 13(4), 882-887, 2019
    Year published: 2019
    Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia
    Aim: Although the reasons behind the stigmatization of psychosis are manifold, poor mental health literacy among the general public is likely to be a major factor. In Hong Kong, the Early Psychosis Foundation (EPISO) was established in 2007 to tackle this issue by providing educational and mental health promotional activities, among other aims and services. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based interventional programme, the School Tour, developed by EPISO.; Methods: The School Tour differentiates itself from other interventional programmes by supplementing a traditional psychoeducational talk with 2 additional elements: an engaging drama performance and exercise demonstrations. Twelve secondary schools, with a total of 4520 students, participated in the study. Knowledge and attitudes towards psychosis were evaluated before and after the school programme.; Results: The School Tour was found to improve both students' knowledge of psychosis (P < .001) and their attitude (P < .001) towards the illness.; Conclusions: Its effectiveness in reducing the stigma towards psychosis validates the use of novel strategies like drama performances to engage adolescent students, and urges the government to support increased student participation in the programme by providing funding to the relevant organizations.
    [Copyright of Early Intervention In Psychiatry is the property of Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia.]
  • Journal Articles

    2. School-related worries of adolescents in Hong Kong: A single school study
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Hong Kong Special Education Forum, 8, 21-41, 2006
    Year published: 2006
    Publisher: Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.
    This study explores school-related issues that cause worry and concern for 590 students, aged 11 to 17, in a typical secondary school in Hong Kong. A 36-item questionnaire in Chinese language was used to probe the extent to which the students worried about apecific matters related to studies, examinations, homework, learning English as a second language, peer-group friendships, teacher-student relationships, and the learning environment in the school. Results indicated that in general both male and female students shared fairly similar concerns, and they worried most about aspects of study and examinations. Males and females also expressed some degree of concern over aspects of homework and learning English as a second language. In general, fewer worries were related to friendship issues, teacher-student relationship, and the learning environment. Our analyses identified a few statistically significant gender differences, and differences related to age and the achievement level of the students.The findings are discussed against the background of literature from over fifty years of research into children's worries, and also in the context of the implementation of comprehensive counselling and guidance programs in the case school. 本研究對香港一間典型中學的 590名年齡界乎11至17歲的學生進行訪問,探討他們有關學校事務的擔憂及關注。本研究採用了一份中文問卷,其中共有36個項目,旨在調查受訪學生對一些特定事情的擔憂程度,包括學習、考試、家課、學習英語作為第二語言、同輩友誼、師生關係和校內學習環境。調查結果顯示男學生和女學生都有相似的關注事項,他們最擔心的是學習和考試;對家課和學習英語作為第二語言亦表示有一些擔心。一般而言,只有少部分學生表示擔心同輩友誼、師生關係和校內學習環境。最後,本研究的結果與過去五十年的文獻資料作討論和比較,當中包括個案學校的全方位輔導計劃的執行情況。
    [Copyright of Hong Kong Special Education Forum is the property of Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.. Full article may be available at the publisher's website:
    https://sites.google.com/a/seshk.org.hk/seshk-org-hk/c_publication]
  • Journal Articles

    3. The development and initial validation of a school-related worries questionnaire (SRWQ) for Chinese students
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Hong Kong Special Education Forum, 10, 41-50, 2008
    Year published: 2008
    Publisher: Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.
    A 35-item instrument, the School-Related Worries Questionnaire (SRWQ), was developed to assess school-related issues of concern among Chinese adolescents. The questionnaire was completed by 562 Chinese secondary-school students in Hong Kong. The SRWQ was found to have good internal consistency (alpha =.89). A principal components factor analysis with varimax solutions yielded seven meaningful factors, namely: 1. Examinations; 2. Studies; 3. English as a second language; 4. Friends; 5. Teacher-Student Relationships; 6. Learning Environment; 7. Homework. Potential uses of the SRWQ are briefly discussed. 剛制訂了一項調查名為「與學校相關的憂慮問卷」(SRWQ),當中列有 35 條專案,目的在於評估中國青少年所關注與學校相關的事情。共 562 名香港的中學生完成了這項問卷調查。調查結果顯示有很好的內部一致性(系數 = .89)。主要成分因數分析產生了七項有意義的因數,即︰1. 考試;2. 學習;3. 以英語作為第二語言;4. 朋友; 5. 老師與學生的相互關係; 6. 學習環境; 7. 家課。現概述問卷的可能用法。
    [Copyright of Hong Kong Special Education Forum is the property of Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.. Full article may be available at the publisher's website:
    https://sites.google.com/a/seshk.org.hk/seshk-org-hk/c_publication]
  • Journal Articles

    4. A multidimensional PERMA-H positive education model, general satisfaction of school life, and character strengths use in Hong Kong senior primary school students: Confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis using the APASO-II
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1090-1090, 2018
    Year published: 2018
    Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
    The multidimensional PERMA-H positive education model provided evaluation and education framework for the theoretical and practice development of positive psychology in schools. Character strengths use mediates the association of strength knowledge and well-being. Using the Assessment Program for Affective and Social Outcomes (2nd Version) (APASO-II), the Subjective Happiness Scale, and the Physical Health Subscale of the PERMA-profiler, a multidimensional measure of PERMA-H was validated using confirmatory factor analysis in the context of a positive education program evaluation in senior primary school students. The association of PERMA-H measurements with school well-being as measured by general satisfaction of school life, and levels of depression and anxiety, and the mediation mechanism of character strengths use in such association were studied using path analysis. A cross-sectional sample of 726 senior primary school students (i.e., grade 4-6) aged 8-13 from the two primary schools completed a baseline evaluation questionnaire of a positive education program. Satisfactory internal reliability of the scales was obtained with Cronbach's alpha coefficients <0.70. The scales were generally positively and moderately inter-correlated, except for level of anxiety and depression symptoms which was negative. Good psychometric properties of APASO-II were evidenced from the factor structure of sub-scale scores conforming to six factors of the PERMA-H model by confirmatory factor analysis. Path analyses showed that the APASO-II factors together with measures of subject happiness and positive health as the multidimensional PERMA-H model of positive education differentially predicted general satisfaction of school life, level of anxiety and depression, and character strengths use. Character strengths use mediated the relationship of Positive Engagement with general satisfaction of school life. Positive education utilizes knowledge and research findings from positive psychology
  • Journal Articles

    5. Relationships among grit, academic performance, perceived academic failure, and stress in associate degree students
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Journal of Adolescence, 60, 148-152, 2017
    Year published: 2017
    Publisher: Academic Press
    The present study examined the relationships among grit, academic performance, perceived academic failure, and stress levels of Hong Kong associate degree students using path analysis. Three hundred and forty-five students from a community college in Hong Kong voluntarily participated in the study. They completed a questionnaire that measured their grit (operationalized as interest and perseverance) and stress levels. The students also provided their actual academic performance and evaluated their perception of their academic performance as a success or a failure. The results of the path analysis showed that interest and perseverance were negatively associated with stress, and only perceived academic failure was positively associated with stress. These findings suggest that psychological appraisal and resources are more important antecedents of stress than objective negative events. Therefore, fostering students' psychological resilience may alleviate the stress experienced by associate degree students or college students in general.
    [Copyright of Journal of adolescence is the property of Academic Press.]
  • Dissertation Theses

    6. Developing and validating the Chinese Spiritual Intelligence Scale with a sample of higher education students in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Dissertation Theses
    Year published: 2018
    Publisher: ProQuest Information & Learning
    Hong Kong university students have shown various psychological health problems. Spiritual intelligence (SI) has been found to have a positive correlation with mental well-being. However, a reliable measure to assess SI in Hong Kong students is lacking. The present study, which comprised three phases, aimed to develop a scale of SI that could meet the characteristics of Hong Kong university students. Phase 1 aimed to explore the meaning of SI in Hong Kong and to develop the preliminary scale of SI. Twenty-eight participants, with or without religion, were interviewed about their understanding of SI. Adopting comparative and inductive techniques, eight categories of SI were revealed: Social Harmony and Influence, Morality, Personal Life Meaning, Emotional Competence, Connection to Higher Power, Existential Thinking, Reflection on Truth and Self, and Practice. A 62-item Chinese Spiritual Intelligence Scale (CSIS) was developed based on these categories. Phase 2 aimed to finalize the items of the CSIS and determine its factor structure. Two hundred and nineteen university students completed the CSIS. Several exploratory factor analyses led to a 29-item six-factor model for CSIS and the model was evaluated in Phase 3. Another sample of 283 Hong Kong university students completed the revised version of CSIS, together with other questionnaires on life meaning, metapersonal self-construal, life satisfaction, mental health, mood states, and emotional intelligence. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to determine whether the 29-item six-factor model fit the current sample. As high correlations were shown among some of the six factors, a four-factor model was proposed. The EFA result supported a 23-item four-factor model and the CFA further validated the model. The full scale of CSIS and its four subscales had good internal reliability. The CSIS was also positively correlated with measures of life meaning, metapersonal self-construal, life satisfaction, mental health, positive
  • Conference Papers

    7. Well-being and engagement with school and society among secondary students in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Conference Papers
    Conference: The II International Congress Students Engagement in School: Perspectives of Psychology and Education: Motivation for Academic Performance (IICIEAE) (2016: University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal)
    Conceptual Framework: This study is founded on the framework of life satisfaction (Huebner, 2001), spiritual health (SH) (Fisher, 1999; 2008), academic engagement (AE) (Appleton et al., 2008) and civic engagement (CE) (Schulz et al., 2008). Objective: To investigate the structural relationships among SH, SE and CE of secondary students. Method: The study employs an integrated questionnaire survey to unfold the complex relationships among the three factors: SH, SE and CE. Over 8500 students aged 12 – 19 were surveyed in 2015. The following hypotheses were tested: (H1) SH is positively predictive for SE. (H2) SH is positively predictive for CE. (H3) Students’ SE is predictive for their CE. (H4) The effect of SH on CE is mediated by SE. Results: Our findings confirm the structural relationships with SH having a significant direct effect on SE (0.883***) but not directly on CE (-0.028). Moreover, SE contributes significantly and positively to CE (0.753***). Spiritual health does not have a significant impact on civic engagement. However, a significant indirect effect of SH on CE via SE (0.665***) was confirmed. Discussion and conclusion: Our overall findings have supported the aforementioned hypotheses with one indirect effect between SH and CE. The study concludes that SH is a core factor with regard to positive student development academically and socially. Additionally, desirable school engagement is linked with students’ future societal engagement such as obeying rules and laws, serving others, expressing their views on civic issues and voting etc. Implications for developing a success for all engagement framework are discussed.
  • Conference Papers

    8. University support, adjustment, and mental health in tertiary education students in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Conference Papers
    Conference: The 2017 Prague International Academic Conference on Education & Social Sciences (2017: Ibis Praha Old Town, Prague, Czechia)
    Depression, anxiety and stress of moderate to severe levels were found in 21%, 41% and 27% of university students in Hong Kong respectively. The development of a screening tool for assessing adjustment difficulties among tertiary education students is helpful for counselling professionals in university. The Student Perception of University Support and Structure Scale (SPUSS), based on concepts articulated in Baumrind’s theory of parenting styles, to measure a supportive and structured college environment. The present study used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to examine whether the SPUSS’ structure is consistent with the typology of four parenting styles. Secondly, factor scores were used to test the hypothesis that a supportive and structured university environment would be associated with students’ psychological adjustment as indicated by measures of depression, anxiety, and stress. Participants were 773 tertiary education students aged 18 to 25 from three Hong Kong universities. The SPUSS shows a four-factor structure consistent with models of parenting styles; the factor scores have excellent psychometric properties; and the factors represent students’ views of the university environment as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or neglectful. This model is different from Yau’s three-factor data-driven model, which identified factors representing psychological, academic, and social adjustment. (2) This study provides evidence of predictive validity in that higher scores on the authoritative factor were related to the lower levels of anxiety, depression, and stress. Only about 2% of students in Hong Kong leave university without completing theirdegree program, compared to rates of between 20% and 40% in the US and the UK. This number suggests that students in Hong Kong enjoy their studies and life atuniversity. However, one large-scale mental health survey of 7915 first year HongKong university students suggested otherwise. Depression, anxiety
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