The influence of social factors on individuals' musical preferences has been extensively examined in Western society; however, little attention has been given to social influences on students' musical preferences in the Chinese context. With reference to Hong Kong, China, this study focuses on junior secondary school students' (Grades Seven to Nine) preferred musical listening styles, and how different social factors have shaped their musical preferences in contemporary Hong Kong society. Given its British colonial history, Hong Kong is renowned for its blend of Eastern and Western cultures, and its historical and cultural backgrounds may be reflected in its students' musical preferences. Two research questions are addressed in this chapter: (1) How do students perceive their musical preferences in their daily lives? (2) What are the social factors influencing students' musical preferences in Hong Kong society? A survey questionnaire was distributed to nine Hong Kong secondary schools in the summer of 2015. Based on a synthesis of the 1,614 completed questionnaires, the quantitative findings provide nuanced insights into students' perceptions of their musical preferences, and how social influences have shaped their musical preferences, in the Hong Kong context. The study found that social factors - language proficiency, family socialization, and technological advancement - significantly shaped students' musical preferences, which, to some extent, reflected the social values in contemporary Hong Kong. Moreover, this study showed that music listening not only served as an aesthetic and leisure activity, but also as a means of socialization, while advanced technology influenced students' music listening behavior by providing a readily-available platform for accessing huge musical resources. Copyright © 2018 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.