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  • Journal Articles

    1. Engaging young children on the autism spectrum: A holistic and practical training model for kindergarten teachers
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Hong Kong Journal of Special Education, 20, 100-121, 2018
    Year published: 2018
    Publisher: The Special Education Society of Hong Kong
    The present action research examined the effectiveness of one pre-school teacher professional development with the focus of deep understanding of autism behaviour and the practical application of three evidence-based strategies: social story (auditory means), TEACCH (visual support) and positive behavior support. The purposive and self-selected samples of 27 pre-school teachers and their students be diagnosed with or suspected of having autism were recruited (N=32) from seven local kindergartens. The teacher participants of the experimental group completed one two-day workshop and received school-based consultations with the input from autism experts. The teacher participants of the control group received delayed teacher training. The teacher participants completed two instruments in Chinese, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist and the Checklist for Learning, Social and Emotional Adjustment (Kindergarten version) to measure the student performance. The teacher participants completed another two self-reported instruments in Chinese, the revised 10-item Attitudes and Concerns about Inclusive Education Scale (SACIE-R) and the 18-itemTeacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practice Scale (TEIP). The data indicated that the student participants of the experimental group reduced the challenging behavior and at the same time they showed improvement in learning and peer interaction. For the teacher participants of the experimental group, they showed more awareness about the inclusion needs of their students on the spectrum. They also recognized the function of having expert input to further enhance teaching efficacy for inclusive practice. The preliminary outcomes here confirmed the positive impact of the holistic and practical approach to pre-school teacher professional development for supporting learning diversity.本硏究以行動研究探討一項著重知識及實踐的學前老師專業培訓,培訓內容包括深度理解自閉症特徵及實戰執行三項有循證數據的支援策略:社交故事(直接、具體的口頭指令)、TEACCH(視覺提示)及正向行為支持。參加者為來自七間幼稚園的 27 位老師及其 32 位有自閉症診斷或懷疑個案的學生。實驗組的老師完成兩日的工作坊和接受有自閉症專家參加的校本諮詢。比較組的老師於研究完成後接受培訓
  • Journal Articles

    2. Career education policy: What are teachers’ experiences in support of student career development in the diverse school setting?
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Hong Kong Journal of Special Education, 20, 36-52, 2018
    Year published: 2018
    Publisher: The Special Education Society of Hong Kong
    Policies of career-planning education have been developed and implemented in different societies over the past decades. The policy facilitates the sustainable development of people, particularly the youth, in exploring career aspirations, identities and pathways at different stages of their development. In Hong Kong, the senior secondary school curriculum has been revised to incorporate career-related learning for all students. A teacher in the position of career master/mistress is responsible for the coordination of student career development in each ordinary public school. The teacher has specifically experienced increasing learning diversity in the school setting where integrated education is provided for students with special educational needs (SEN). This paper aims to explore the teacher’s experience in support of career development of students with or without SEN in the school. We adopted an interview method to capture three teachers’ experiences in three schools located in different districts in Hong Kong. What were the teachers’ experiences of implementing the policy of career-planning education for senior secondary students in the schools? What effects on the students’ career development did the teachers perceive? The findings can unveil the challenges facing the teachers for coordination of career-planning programmes in the schools. Although the programme can generally awaken the students’ self-understanding and career competencies, more resources and intense support for SEN students’ career development are needed. This seems to be an agenda missing in the current policymaking. Implications of the education for positive whole-person development of students are also discussed.過去數十年,不同社會都實施職業規劃教育政策。該政策有助於人們,特別是青年人的可持續發展,於不同階段中探索職業志向、專業身份和發展方向。香港的新高中學課程亦為所有學生提供多種職業相關的學習,而學校亦增設職業輔導主任及教師為高中學生制定職業規劃課程。不過,教師也要面對在融合教育環境內,不斷增長的學習多樣性。本文旨在探討職業輔導教師支援學生職業發展的經驗(包括有特殊教育需要學生)。透過面談,研究問题包括:學校為高中學生實施職業規劃教育,教師有甚麼經驗?職業規劃教育對學生的職業發展有何影響?調查顯示教師在統籌學校職業規劃教育活動所面對的挑戰。雖然職業規劃教育活動可以喚醒學生的自我理解和職業能力
  • Journal Articles

    3. Factors influencing the evolution of inclusion to diversity in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Hong Kong Journal of Special Education, 16, 12-23, 2014
    Year published: 2014
    Publisher: Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.
    This paper looks at the evolving trend of government influence on schools and education across the world, and asks what is happening in Hong Kong in both mainstream and special education. Recent evidence would suggest that in many countries governments are starting to question the efficacy of current policies and practices. The challenge is for the Hong Kong government to reduce its quasi influence, and for teachers to begin to self-examine the efficacy of their teaching practices in terms of meeting the needs of each and every student in their classroom. There appears to be a conflict of interest between the needs of the state and the needs of the classroom. If teachers were to be given more responsib1ility for the learning progress of each student, rather than simply the overall progress of groups of students, current pedagogical practices would require a major paradigm shift. 本文就全球不斷進展的趨勢,檢視各國政府政策對學校及教育的影響,並探討香港主流教育與特殊教育的現況。最新資料顯示,不少國家的政府已開始懐疑現行政策及實踐的成效,香港政府要面對的挑戰,是如何減少它在形式上的影響及如何令老師開始自我審視在處理個別學生需要教學方法的效益。事實上,國家所認同的需要與課堂裹所期望的需要,像各有分歧。作者指出,如果老師要為每一個學生學習進展負責而不是為一群學生的整體進步為目標,則現行的教學實踐需經歷一次重大的範式轉移。
    [Copyright of Hong Kong Journal of Special Education is the property of Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.. Full article may be available at the publisher's website:
    https://sites.google.com/a/seshk.org.hk/seshk-org-hk/c_publication]
  • Journal Articles

    4. Equal educational opportunity? Global policy development and local practices in diverse school contexts
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Hong Kong Journal of Special Education, 18, 1-13, 2016
    Year published: 2016
    Publisher: Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.
    Challenges to equal educational opportunities for all students still exist in many places across different societies in times of increasingly diverse student populations in schools. Not only students with different learning abilities but also those from different social, cultural and ethnic backgrounds have diverse learning needs. We argue that inclusive education should take a broader perspective regarding students of difference and/or difficulty,while principals play out important leadership roles for equal educational opportunity in schools. This paper aims to examine two principal leadership approaches to practices for the diversity of student populations. By conducting a cross-case study, the principals cultivated an inclusive and multicultural school environment for the students. The findings show that the principals turned their schools around by adopting similar and different leadership practices. Hence, they can transform the schools towards more inclusion for students of differences and difficulties. 隨著學校學生的差異性不斷擴大,在不同地方為所有學生提供平等教育機會仍然面對各樣挑戰。主要除了學習能力的差異,亦可能因來自不同社會、文化及種族背景,學生的學習需要變得更複雜。我們認為校長在平等教育機會中擔任重要的領導角色,而融合教育應以更全面的觀點去應對學生的學習差異與困難。這篇文章以跨個案研究分析兩位校長在面對學生複雜和差異的學習需要時的領導方式,為學生的學習提供一個共融及多元文化的校園環境。研究結果顯示兩位校長實踐相似但不相同的領導方式促使學校轉型,他們帶領學校發展成為更能接納學生差異與困難的共融校園。
    [Copyright of Hong Kong Journal of Special Education is the property of Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.. Full article may be available at the publisher's website:
    https://sites.google.com/a/seshk.org.hk/seshk-org-hk/c_publication]
  • Journal Articles

    5. Validation of an assessment instrument – SCALE using Rasch analysis: A brief report
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Hong Kong Journal of Special Education, 16, 1-11, 2014
    Year published: 2014
    Publisher: Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.
    This study aims to report on the psychometric properties of SCALE, a newly developed assessment instrument, that is based on the central curriculum for students with intellectual disabilities, using Rasch Analysis. Results indicated that the SCALE could classify students into at least 13 levels of abilities, and that the range of item difficulty was capable of stratifying students’ abilities into 8 to 11 attainment levels. The Rasch statistics demonstrated that the assessment results using SCALE had a high degree of validity and reliability. Its uni-dimensionality as an instrument to measure the attainment levels of the four Key Learning Areas in the central curriculum was also supported. Results from the Rasch Analysis showed that the SCALE measure is a well-validated instrument in identifying the differential levels of attainment. Based on the SCALE data, teachers can design learning materials and activities to match the performance levels of individual students. In addition, the use of the SCALE attainment descriptors to differentiate students’ attainment levels would enable teachers in schools to document progress of their students within an academic year. Subsequently, this enables them to reflect on their teaching effectiveness and make adjustments for the following year. 本研究旨在報告「融通學習成效量表」(SCALE)的心理測量數據特性。「融通學習成效量表」(SCALE)是為連接特殊學校與主流學校課程而研發出來的一項嶄新的評估工具。研究採用等級量尺模式分析法 (Rasch Analysis)‧結果顯示SCALE能把學生的學習能力表現至少可分13個不同程度;且其項目難度也能將學生能力分為8至11個學習能力表現水平級別。從統計數據顯示出SCALE擁有極高信效度。單一構念向度方面的數據亦顯示出SCALE能辨別出有特殊教育需要的學生於四個主要學習領域的學習能力表現之差異。故此,老師能使用SCALE的評估結果,去設計適合個別學生能力的教材及活動。此外,SCALE中的學生學習能力表現指標,亦能讓老師根據SCALE評估結果所提供的實證來衡量學生於每一學年間的學習進度,從而反思自己的教學效能,並在下一個學年為學生的教學作相應的調整。
    [Copyright of Hong Kong Journal of Special Education is the property of Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.. Full article may be available at the publisher's website:
    https://sites.google.com/a/seshk.org.hk/seshk-org-hk/c_publication]
  • Journal Articles

    6. Interventions for bullying in Hong Kong primary classrooms: Teachers’ perspectives on approaches and difficulties
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Hong Kong Journal of Special Education, 17, 40-55, 2015
    Year published: 2015
    Publisher: Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.
    This small-scale exploratory study investigated Hong Kong primary teachers’ perceptions of bullying in school, and the difficulties they meet when implementing interventions to prevent or reduce bullying. Five primary school teachers from government-aided schools, private schools,and Direct Subsidy Scheme schools in Hong Kong were interviewed. The findings suggest that they are aware of various approaches to controlling bullying, and some use a mixed approach. A few of them use proactive approaches on the basis that ‘prevention is always better than an attempted cure’. Others tend to use reactive approaches that only respond to incidents of bullying when they occur. Most teachers mentioned that whole-school interventions had been implemented in their place of work,yet these interventions were different among different schools. The difficulties teachers had in tackling bullying effectively included time constraints, lack of expertise in behavioural management, the need of providing family education, difficulty in arranging a schedule for whole-school intervention, and problems in developing a specific intervention for individual cases. The findings reinforce a view that different parties need to put more effort in helping teachers develop effective bullying interventions. 這小型探索性研究目的是探討香港小學教師對校園欺凌的看法與其介入事件時所面對的困難。研究訪問了五位來自政府津貼學校、私立學校和直接資助學校的小學教師。結果指出,他們意識到處理欺凌事件的不同方法,部分教師會同時採取多種方法去處理。就大方向而言,有部分教師相信「預防勝於治療」,他們會採取積極的行動去管制校園欺凌;其他教師會「以不變應萬變」,以較為保守的態度應對。多數教師表示其任教的小學有實行全校性的干預措施,但由於學校的校情不盡相同,所以實行方法也有差別。此外,時間限制、缺乏行為管理專業知識、家長配合、學校支援,及欺凌事件的獨特性,都是教師在有效處理校園欺凌問題所面對的重重難關。總括而言,研究結果肯定了教師在介入欺凌事件方面,需要其他持分者更多的協助。
    [Copyright of Hong Kong Journal of Special Education is the property of Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.. Full article may be available at the publisher's website:
    https://sites.google.com/a/seshk.org.hk/seshk-org-hk/c_publication]
  • Journal Articles

    7. Preparing teachers in Hong Kong to support inclusion: A cultural framework for inclusive teacher education
    By: Li, Eddy
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Hong Kong Journal of Special Education, 16, 48-54, 2014
    Year published: 2014
    Publisher: Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.
    Since the implementation of the "Whole School Approach to Integrated Education" in 1997, mainstream schools in Hong Kong have been encouraged to admit students who are identified with a wide range of learning needs. More recently, the concept of “inclusion” in the city has been widened to incorporate a significant number of newly arrived children from the mainland China, as well as non-Chinese speaking students. Given such a diversity of school population, however, research tends to suggest that practitioners in Hong Kong do not take a positive attitude towards inclusion. When responding to the challenges posed by inclusive education, it is important for practitioners and policy makers not to overlook legitimate local differences, especially in the role ascribed to education in the culture, and the processes of exclusion in different national settings. In this connection, this paper aims to provide a direction for the development of a cultural model of inclusion. By exploring the cultural meaning of “inclusion”, and observing how teachers respond to the diverse needs of learners in practice, the Model is expected to set a cultural-specific framework for inclusive teacher education. 自1997年,政府推行全校參與模式的融合教育,並不斷鼓勵香港主流學校接納不同類別而有特殊教育需要的學生入讀。近年來,融合的概念已涵蓋至照顧內地新來港兒童和非華語學童的需要。然而,即使學校的學生有不同的學習需要,很多研究卻均顯示參與者對融合教育的態度並不積極正面。面對融合教育的挑戰,參與者及政策制訂者不應忽視本土內各項差異,尤其是於文化層面內教育的角色及社會層面中是否存在排斥的情況。本文旨在為融合教育的文化模式提供一個發展方向。透過研究融合教育的文化含義和觀察教師處理學生差異的實際教學方式,期望為教師培訓製訂一系列有文化特色的融合教育教學法。
    [Copyright of Hong Kong Journal of Special Education is the property of Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.. Full article may be available at the publisher's website:
    https://sites.google.com/a/seshk.org.hk/seshk-org-hk/c_publication]
  • Journal Articles

    8. What are the young adults’ willingness to socialize with peers on the autism spectrum?
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Hong Kong Journal of Special Education, 19, 20-31, 2017
    Year published: 2017
    Publisher: Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.
    The social communication needs of young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are complex and yet this area has not been well researched. The present study investigated the social inclusion of young adults with ASD in colleges. A total of 80 young adults studying full- time in colleges completed the self-developed on-line questionnaires on the social perceptions of their peers on the spectrum. The findings indicated that about half of the respondents would engage peers on the spectrum in their social groups. However, the respondents showed the least willingness of having someone with ASD to join their collaborative project groups. About half of the respondents mentioned the communication challenges in socialising with peers on the spectrum. Our findings re-affirmed that the importance of peer support to include young adults with ASD to different social and academic contexts in post-secondary education settings. The strength-based approach to support young adults on the spectrum to increase social connectedness and self-confidence is discussed. 自閉症譜系障礙(自閉症)年青人的社交環境是複雜、多層次的,但現時,這方面的科研卻十分缺少。本研究的目標是探討自閉症年青人的社交融合情況。80位全日制專上學院或大學生填寫了關於他們與自閉症同輩交往的網上問卷。數據顯示,大約一半的填卷者願意與自閉症同輩交往,但是他們卻最不願意與自閉症同輩做小組研習活動。大約一半的填卷者表示社交溝通困難是主要的挑戰。研究結果肯定了同輩互動對自閉症年青人融入社群及學習環境的重要性。總括而言,本文建議利用「優勢模式」來擴闊自閉症年青人的社交圈子及提升自信。
    [Copyright of Hong Kong Journal of Special Education is the property of Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.. Full article may be available at the publisher's website:
    https://sites.google.com/a/seshk.org.hk/seshk-org-hk/c_publication]
  • Journal Articles

    9. Validation of the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) in Chinese students with special educational needs
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Hong Kong Journal of Special Education, 19, 1-19, 2017
    Year published: 2017
    Publisher: The Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.
    The Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) is a 36-item scale developed by Beavers, Hampson, and Hulgus (1990) to assess competent and dysfunctional family functioning. While the SFI is widely tested in the areas of counselling psychology and clinical psychology, considerably less effort has been allocated to examine its psychometrics in educational settings. By using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) based on previous research, this study aimed to validate the Chinese version of SFI (C-SFI, Shek, 1998) with a sample of Hong Kong secondary students with special educational needs (SEN). The key purpose was to provide a useful tool to assess family functioning of this vulnerable population of students to inform practice improvement to cater for their needs. Consistent with Shek’s studies in typically developed students, the results of EFA showed a two-factor pattern. CFA results provided further evidence showing the best model fit indices were for the two-factor solution (i.e., family health and family pathology) compared with other competing models. This study also developed a short form (8 items instead of 36) of the C-SFI, which would be regarded as a parsimonious screening tool for researchers and practitioners to test family functioning of SEN students.家庭自我報告量表 (SFI) 是由 Beavers, Hamson, 及 Hulgus 在 1990 年編製的評估家庭功能狀況的量表。雖然該量表被廣泛應用於輔導心理學和臨床心理學,然而在教育領域的應用卻鮮有報導。本研究在已有研究的基礎上,通過探索性因素分析和驗證性因素分析評估中文版 SFI (C-SFI, Shek, 1998) 在香港有特殊學習需要中學生群體中的信度和效度。研究的主要目的是為有特殊教育需要學生這一弱勢群體提供一個有用的家庭功能評估工具。並在了解他們家庭功能的基礎上,為改進幫扶這一特殊需要群體的實踐提供指導作用。探索性因素分析結果生成兩個因素,這與已有的在香港普通學生中的研究結果一致。驗證性因素分析進一步提供了兩因素模型相關的擬合指數。本研究在原中文問卷的基礎上(36 條題項),發展了一個簡化版 SF-C-SFI(8 條題項)。簡化版的兩因素與原版對應的兩因素之間的相關係數較高,達到 r=.92 以及 r=.94。 本研究初步為研究者和實踐者提供一個簡化版的篩查工具,用以評估殘疾學生的家庭功能。 Copyright © 2017 The Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.
  • Journal Articles

    10. Developing a short form of career development self-efficacy inventory (SF-CD-SEI) for students with special educational needs
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Hong Kong Journal of Special Education, 17, 28-39, 2015
    Year published: 2015
    Publisher: The Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.
    The present investigation validated a short form of Career Development Self-Efficacy Inventory (CD-SEI) in students with a wide range of special educational needs (SEN). Participants were a sample of S3 to S6 SEN students who have been integrated in regular schools in Hong Kong (N =103). The SF-CD-SEI consists of five key domains to assess students' self-efficacy in career planning, career goal setting, training selection, job hunt preparation, and job hunting. The results showed good reliability estimates for the whole scale and for all five sub-scales. Based on previous research on validating the complete CD-SEI, a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed to test three competing models of the internal structure of the SF-CD-SEI. The results showed the high order model (model 3) had the best model fit compared to one general factor model (model 1) and five-factor model (model 2). These findings were consistent with those identified in previous studies with non-SEN students. The SF-CD-SEI provides researchers, educators and practitioners a useful instrument to assess SEN students' competences in career planning in order to develop self-efficacy enhancement interventions to cater for these students' career development needs.
    [Copyright © 2015 The Special Education Society of Hong Kong Ltd.]
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