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  • Source: Asia Pacific Journal of Education
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  • Journal Articles

    11. Examining the key stakeholders' perceptions of student learning: Towards a paradigm shift in secondary education in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 39(4), 532-547, 2019
    Year published: 2019
    Publisher: Routledge
    The current New Senior Secondary curriculum was implemented in Hong Kong in 2009. This educational reform promotes a paradigm shift in learning and teaching strategies, with the ultimate goal to prepare secondary school students for meeting the changing needs of the workplace and for lifelong learning. This paper reports empirical findings by investigating the impact of such a paradigm shift in education on student learning through comparing the perceptions of different stakeholders (i.e., school heads, teachers and students). The data were collected from a self-reported questionnaire, involving 91 secondary schools, 1,439 school heads, Key Learning Areas coordinators/panels heads, Secondary 6 teachers, and 4614 Secondary 6 students. Key findings are: (1) seven dimensions of student learning were identified (in terms of generic skills, personal growth and well-being, values and attitudes) and these are regarded as the important paradigm shift in the secondary education curriculum; (2) school heads were more optimistic than Key Learning Areas coordinators/panel heads and frontline teachers about the performance of Secondary 6 students; and (3) Secondary 6 students had a more positive outlook than their teachers regarding world views, pluralistic views, communication skills, critical thinking and creativity. Implications and recommendations are discussed.
    [Copyright of Asia Pacific Journal of Education is the property of Routledge.]
  • Journal Articles

    12. Wither teacher professional development? The challenges of learning teaching and constructing identities across boundaries in China
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2020
    Publisher: Routledge
    Teacher professional development (TPD) is regarded as crucial to fostering teacher improvement. Recent calls for the internationalization of teacher education and professional development, including teachers undertaking courses taught abroad, have enhanced the scope of TPD opportunities. Yet, little is currently known about how such international experiences of TPD shape the perspectives of these teachers. It is also unclear how the learning these teachers experience in foreign settings is reflected in their engagement in the practices and activities of schools and classrooms upon returning to their home country. Therefore, this paper reports the results of a study that explores the perspectives and experiences of one group of in-service mainland Chinese teachers who undertook professional development in Hong Kong. Grounded in a theory of teacher identity construction and using in-depth interviews, results suggest that the teacher’s identities were shaped by the learning they experienced during professional development. However, following their return to teaching positions in mainland China, relations of power within their schools blocked the construction of their preferred teacher identities in practice. Suggestions are made for supporting the identity construction aims of teachers who undertake international professional development and implications for future research are considered. Copyright © 2020 National Institute of Education, Singapore.
  • Journal Articles

    13. Perceptions of Hong Kong physical education teachers on the inclusion of students with disabilities
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 37(1), 86-102, 2017
    Year published: 2017
    Publisher: Routledge
    Based on Lev Vygotsky's social constructivism theory, this study examined the perceptions of Hong Kong physical education (PE) teachers regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities in general PE programmes. Eight secondary PE teachers (female = 5, male = 3) were recruited for individual semi-structured interviews. Data gathered from the interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Interview transcripts were analysed and presented as descriptive summaries, as well as underwent content analysis. Three themes emerged based on the content analysis of the teachers' interview data: (1) favourable, but with concerns, (2) hope to be professional, and (3) lack of connection. Results indicated that the teachers acknowledged the benefits of inclusion in PE; however, the teachers also expressed concern regarding the instructional and environmental barriers to the inclusion of students with disabilities in general PE programmes. The findings demonstrated the need for highly frequent and efficient communication, involvement, and collaboration among stakeholders involved in inclusive PE.
  • Journal Articles

    14. An assessment of the role of Hong Kong schools in promoting civic learning
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2017
    Publisher: Routledge
    Hong Kong underwent tremendous changes after the transfer of its sovereignty to China in 1997. This study attempts to explore the changing role of schools in preparing students for future democratic citizenship in the post-colonial era. Different researchers have postulated that schools play a crucial role in the political socialization process in meeting the developmental needs of adolescents. A mixed-method sequential explanatory research design was adopted to assess the effectiveness of Hong Kong schools in promoting civic learning. The significance of the present study was to analyse the school context by using the assessment framework from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Civic Education Study (CivEd) to generate citizenship education studies. An extensive review of research related to the role of schools through formal and informal curricula was conducted. This process helped extend the current understanding of the effectiveness of the political socialization in secondary schools in Hong Kong and contributed to the further development of the research on political socialization in the Chinese context. The findings from this study would help educators or policy makers rethink the future role of schools in citizenship education.
    [Copyright © 2017 National Institute of Education, Singapore.]
  • Journal Articles

    15. School desegregation in Hong Kong: non-Chinese linguistic minority students' challenges to learning Chinese in mainstream schools
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 36(4), 533-544, 2016
    Year published: 2016
    Publisher: Routledge Journals, Taylor & Francis Ltd
    The enactment of the revised School Places Allocation Systems at the compulsory stage in 2004 had the aim of desegregating Hong Kong's non-Chinese linguistic minority (NCLM) students by including them into ethnic Chinese-dominated mainstream primary and secondary schools. Because of the presumed cause-consequence relationship between desegregated school participation and academic achievement, in specific second language Chinese (CSL) acquisition, the challenges that such students face in participating in mainstream education and learning Chinese, no doubt, deserve to be examined. This qualitative study conducted in-depth interviews with 18 secondary students of South Asian/Southeast Asian minority backgrounds enrolled in mainstream schools. Drawing on both cultural and institutional paradigms of explanation for educational achievement, we argue that the reasons inhibiting the minority students' academic involvement are not simply their linguistic challenges but also the institutional constraints in the mainstream education system unique to this population. This study calls for a shift in school desegregation arrangement from one focusing narrowly on physical desegregation to a more comprehensive set of policies that embrace the institutional factors including teacher expectation, resource availability, and bilingual support, crucial to reduce racial differences in achievement.
  • Journal Articles

    16. Developing students' critical thinking skills through visual literacy in the New Secondary School Curriculum in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 36(3), 379-379, 2016
    Year published: 2016
    Publisher: Routledge
    This paper argues that the planned introduction of visual literacy into the New Secondary School Curriculum can play a crucial role in enabling students to think critically and creatively in Hong Kong's highly visual landscape. As Hong Kong's educational system remains entrenched in long-established and conventional pedagogies, the primacy given to the written word is in sharp contrast with the pragmatic roles that visual images play in students' day-to-day life. Hong Kong is well-known for its extremely high level of Internet / broadband penetration and media saturation, yet visual literacy is still in a state of infancy in Hong Kong. Therefore, from a curricular standpoint, as Hong Kong society relies to a greater degree than ever before on visual communication strategies, it is vital that visual literacy be integrated as part of the new curriculum under the current educational reforms. As contemporary Hong Kong culture becomes increasingly dependent on the visual environment, developing visual literacy to enhance students' learning can be an important step in the future towards a more successful implementation and development of the New Secondary School Curriculum.
    [Copyright of Asia Pacific Journal of Education is the property of Routledge]
  • Journal Articles

    17. Caught between cultures: Case study of an 'out of school' ethnic minority student in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2016
    Publisher: Routledge
    This paper reports a case study on Maneesha Rai, a Nepalese girl living in Hong Kong and an “out of school” student. Based on in-depth interviews, a case was constructed of her previous school days and current “out of school” days. These provided a vivid picture of her life and several themes were created using schema analysis that help explain the reasons for her “dropping out” of school after Form Five. It has been common to attribute school failure for ethnic minority students in Hong Kong to problems with Chinese language education. Yet Maneesha’s case study shows that her experience of failure in other subjects such as Mathematics and Science contributed to her lack of successful schooling. Maneesha’s school failure was more than simply a consequence of academic failure. Rather, there were many other interrelated factors such as peer and community factors, dropout history in the family, racism, differences in schooling culture found that contributed to her school failure. In addition, Maneesha, like many of her ethnic minority friends, enjoyed the freedom afforded her in Hong Kong, but it seemed such freedom also meant inadequate attention from her teachers.
    [Copyright © 2016 National Institute of Education, Singapore.]
  • Journal Articles

    18. Educational reforms and the practices of professional learning community in Hong Kong primary schools
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 36(2), 231-247, 2016
    Year published: 2016
    Publisher: Routledge
    This study explored the characteristics of professional learning communities (PLCs) in Hong Kong primary schools. It investigated the profiles of the strengths of professional learning community in schools under study and particularly examined the practices in schools which were identified as strong PLCs. It extends research on PLCs in the Hong Kong context and formulates a quantitative perspective to compare and validate PLC variables across schools in Hong Kong. The Professional Learning Community Questionnaire (PLCQ) for Hong Kong schools was developed to assess the PLC practices in six different areas: leadership for teacher learning, collaborative learning capacity, student-focused orientation, a culture of sharing, mutual understanding and support, and continuous professional development. A composite construct, the Professional Learning Community Index (PLCI) expressed in quantitative terms was utilized to assess the strength of PLC in a school. The research findings show that within the schools which were identified as strong professional learning communities, both the school leaders and teachers had strong emphases on the six subscales of the PLC practices.
    [Copyright of Asia Pacific Journal of Education is the property of Routledge. Full article may be available at the publisher's website:
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2016.1148852]
  • Journal Articles

    19. Empowerment or impediment? School governance in the school-based management era in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 35(3), 319-330, 2015
    Year published: 2015
    Publisher: Routledge
    Following the international trend in education towards democracy and decentralization, the Hong Kong government introduced a school-based management (SBM) system about two decades ago. It is widely recognized in the literature that decentralization, empowering school level management and marginalizing the influence of the intermediate level of governance, can result in better deployment of school resources and better meet the demands of various stakeholders. However, in the unique historical and cultural context of Hong Kong, the advantages of decentralization claimed in the literature have yet to be fully realized. This paper discusses the contextual factors affecting the implementation of SBM in Hong Kong, and examines their impact on four major stakeholders, namely the government, the principals, the teachers, and the parents in the wake of reform.
    [Copyright of Asia Pacific Journal of Education is the property of Routledge. Full article may be available at the publisher's website:
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2015.1056592]
  • Journal Articles

    20. Moving from a personal to a social constructivist view of learning: Implications for support in the student teaching experience
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 23(1), 85-98, 2003
    Year published: 2003
    Publisher: Routledge
    Recently, the school and co-operating teachers have an increasingly important role, by offering stronger support during the teaching practice. Being congruent with similar developments in teacher education programmes in other countries, this development in Hong Kong is strengthened by research studies examining the process of learning to teach. By arguing that the process of learning to teach can be examined from a personal constructivist view of learning, this paper examines the experience from the student-teachers' perspective. The finding reports on the problems perceived by the student-teachers during the student teaching practice and the support provided by the co-operating teachers. The problems encountered and the support obtained were compared and contrasted to reveal the possible roles of the co-operating teachers. The process of learning to teach is extended from a personal view to include support from the social milieu. This paper proposes to consider the process from a social constructivist view of learning. Drawing on the findings, it concludes with implications on how the school and the teacher education institute can collaborate and support the student-teachers from a social constructivist view of learning.
    [Copyright © Nanyang Technological University & National Institute of Education.]
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