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  • Conference Papers

    1. Ignoring history and facts: The ongoing politicisation of Hong Kong education
    Document Type: Conference Papers
    Conference: The SoE Virtual Doctoral Conference 2020: Mapping and Making Research in Shifting Landscapes - Are You Building Bridges or Getting Lost? (2020: University of Bristol, UK)
  • Conference Papers

    2. Multicultural education in Hong Kong? Challenges and opportunities
    Document Type: Conference Papers
    Conference: Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong (CESHK) Annual Conference 2013 (2013: The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)
    Multicultural education in many industrialized, diverse societies aims to positively represent and include minority groups in the curriculum. Though there is some discussion of this aim in Hong Kong curriculum, the positive inclusion of minorities in subjects dealing with social life remains minimal. This paper aims to defend the need for multicultural education in Hong Kong by comparing the sociological and representational challenges there with those of other societies with traditions of multicultural education. Using comparative methods this project provides sociological and historical context to multicultural education programs in diverse societies including Canada, the United States, France, Japan, and South Africa. The historical backdrop of these countries will be considered as well as the nature of their multicultural education. Hong Kong faces unique dilemmas in developing multicultural education, including the problem of prejudice toward mainland Chinese people, and the common notion that to be a Hong Konger one must be both (a) of Chinese (Han) ethnicity, and (b) Chinese (Cantonese and/or Mandarin) speaking. This paper will examine these and related issues in the context of the broader comparative discussion, also considering other essential challenges to the concept of multicultural education. Copyright © 2013 The CESHK Annual Conference.
  • Conference Papers

    3. The effect of stereotypical teaching materials: Minority representations and multiculturalism in Hong Kong schools
    Document Type: Conference Papers
    Conference: Conference on “Receptivity and Responsibility: Are Mainstream Schools Prepared for Hong Kong’s Ethnic Minority Students?” (2015: The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China)
  • Conference Papers

    4. Comparing perspectives on religious education: The treatment of religion in Hong Kong liberal studies
    Document Type: Conference Papers
    Conference: 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES 2014): Revisioning Education for All (2014: Sheraton Centre Toronto Hotel, Toronto, Canada)
    1. Objectives or purposes of the paper.The primary purpose of this paper is to analyze how religion is portrayed and explored within the Liberal Studies curriculum in Hong Kong schools. Liberal Studies is the main place for social studies and moral and civic education in Hong Kong today, as one of four required subjects (alongside math, English, and Chinese). Liberal Studies aims in part “to help students appreciate and respect diversity in cultures and views in a pluralistic society.” However, it is also a new part of curriculum which teachers can find hard to implement. This paper specifically analyzes how religion is discussed and described in Liberal Studies curriculum materials including major textbooks used, as textbooks are thus far often directing the course of classroom teaching in Liberal Studies.2. Main perspective or theoretical/conceptual framework used.A comparative multicultural framework undergirds this project. The researcher’s past experience in multicultural religious education in the United States informs the choice of topic. Though both the United States and Hong Kong are proudly diverse places with strong traditions of religious freedom, Hong Kong lacks the tradition of common schooling of many Western societies and its aim to help students understand and assimilate with one another. As a result, the multicultural content may not be as celebratory about diversity there. Additionally, in Hong Kong it is understood that individuals can participate in various religious traditions at the same time, while in Western societies people tend to be more exclusive in their religious belief or unbelief. Though comparisons of multiculturalism in education are a backdrop to this project, its ultimate aim remains to consider whether students are learning what they should learn to understand religiously diverse others from the Liberal Studies curriculum, from an intercultural-multicultural stance which values dialogue and initial respect and good faith in the midst
  • Conference Papers

    5. A preliminary examination of the concept of altruism as an aim of education
    Document Type: Conference Papers
    Conference: The 43rd Annual Conference of the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia: Measuring up in Education, Melbourne Graduate School of Education (2013: Melbourne Graduate School of Education, Carlton, Australia)
    Many are concerned with education’s role in preparing societies to meet challenges related to globalization. Among various educational aims related to globalization is that of developing in young people a critical awareness of the lives of disadvantaged people, in their communities and across the world, to become compassionate, or socially responsible, ‘global citizens’. This general interest is shared by policy makers envisioning global or twenty-first century citizenship education, as well as by philosophers of education and social justice-oriented teachers. However, the aim of such education or its most appropriate pedagogy or schooling context is not always spelled out, owing to the controversial nature of various interpretations and recommendations related to poverty and injustice today (i.e., economic redistribution versus austerity; privatisation versus socialism).In this essay, I ask whether altruism can be usefully elaborated as an educational aim for global citizenship and social responsibility. First, I examine philosophical treatments of altruism such as by Thomas Nagel and Lawrence Blum, and consider the educational implications of significant features of a useful definition of the concept. Next, I juxtapose these views with those of Confucian and Buddhist scholars, to consider whether a universal value of altruism for contexts of west and east is plausible. Finally, I apply my conceptualization of altruism to Hong Kong curriculum, providing a concrete context for considering altruism as a useful educational aim. I end by highlighting the tension of teaching for altruism in settings (unlike Hong Kong) where moral education is contentious, while citizenship education is not. Copyright © 2013 PESA CONFERENCE.
  • Journal Articles

    6. Learning about diversity in Hong Kong: Multiculturalism in liberal studies textbooks
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 26(1), 21-29, 2017
    Year published: 2017
    Publisher: Springer
    Improving mainstream perceptions of diversity in Hong Kong is fundamental to enhancing equality and human rights in the society in the future. The importance of mainstream members of society learning to recognize diversity with less prejudice undergirds many of the aims of a recent educational reform, Liberal Studies. This paper evaluates the capacity of Liberal Studies to educate for multicultural understanding of cultural difference. Its primary data source is Liberal Studies textbooks, and it employs a qualitative content analysis to consider how diversity and ethnic, cultural, and religious differences are represented in the texts. The analysis is complemented by an examination of related resources teachers may use in the classroom (and are encouraged to use by the Hong Kong Curriculum Development Council): mainstream news articles and resources from the (government-provided) Web-based Resource Platform for Liberal Studies. The voices and views of some practicing teachers and pre-service teacher education students related to multicultural Liberal Studies resources are also included to provide a balanced picture. Based on this analysis, multicultural education as provided in major resources within the Liberal Studies curriculum appears inadequate. As diversity is reflected upon in resources analyzed here most often as problematic and stereotypical, interventions are needed if Liberal Studies is to enable multicultural appreciation and understanding among students in Hong Kong in the future. Copyright © 2016 De La Salle University.
  • Journal Articles

    7. Multicultural or intercultural education in Hong Kong?
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2013
    Publisher: Emerald Publishing Limited
    Although multiculturalism in education has become dominant in many societies, Hong Kong does not have a tradition of multicultural education. This paper asks whether and how multicultural education, or a new variant, “interculturalism,” might be usefully employed in considering diversity and inequality in Hong Kong education. After giving a brief overview of multiculturalism and interculturalism in education, the paper examines the needs of Newly Arrived Students (NAS) from mainland China and ethnic minorities to receive greater educational representation through content integration, and interventions to increase student empowerment and reduce prejudice (in line with a multicultural approach). However, students can also benefit from programs labeled as “intercultural” today: linguistic interventions that assimilate students to dominant languages used for work and equal opportunity in society. The paper compares Hong Kong’s challenges with those of other countries that employ multicultural and/or intercultural education programs, Canada, the United States, France, Japan, and South Africa, and also considers educational implications of the latest Moral and National Education controversy, to argue for the need for a more active role for multiculturalism and interculturalism in Hong Kong education today. Copyright © 2013 Comparative Education Society of Hong Kong.
  • Journal Articles

    8. Multiculturalism in Chinese history in Hong Kong: Constructing Chinese identity
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 39(2), 209-221, 2019
    Year published: 2019
    Publisher: Routledge
    Teaching young people to understand and appreciate diversity is crucial in Hong Kong efforts for a just and inclusive multicultural society. History is the main place where the cultural identity and values of Hong Kong society have been reflected on, questioned, and problematized in the curriculum, as changes to this curriculum interface with larger social and political changes of the society. Although diversity is emphasized in Hong Kong history curricula, representations of ethnic minorities provided in education may not always be effective toward multicultural aims. This research explores how multicultural content is expressed in Hong Kong Chinese history textbooks. In particular, we focus on how relationships between Han and minority cultures are represented in the texts, using qualitative content analysis. Based on the analysis, we elaborate three main descriptive codes and themes: (1) only majority perspectives are provided, (2) cultural superiority of the dominant group (the Han), and (3) plural monoculturalism, where minority views are treated as threatened and/or as threatening in relation to the society as a whole. We argue that these codes are in contrast with a multicultural stance that aims to enhance social justice and equity in relation to diversity, through providing balanced perspectives, including positive ethnic minority recognition and support for just forms of pluralistic integration. Copyright © 2019 National Institute of Education, Singapore.
  • Journal Articles

    9. Environmental attitudes and behaviors among secondary students in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2016
    Publisher: Emerald Publishing Limited
    Purpose - Although researchers have identified correlations between specific attitudes and particular behaviors in the pro-environmental domain, the general relationship between young people’s development of environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors is not well understood. Past research indicates that geographic context can play a role, while social factors such as age and gender can have a more significant impact on predicting attitudes and behaviors than formal education. Few studies have systematically examined the relationships between education and environmental attitudes and behaviors among youth in Hong Kong. The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a study comparing secondary school students’ environmental attitudes and behaviors with age and related factors in two international schools and two government schools in Hong Kong. Students’ attitudes and behaviors were compared based on school type (curriculum), while the authors additionally compared the significance of social factors and attitudes on students’ behaviors.Design/methodology/approach - Attitudes were measured using the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) and the NEP for Children (NEPC), the most commonly used, internationally standardized tools for investigating environmental attitudes and values of adults and young people for comparative purposes. The authors compared NEP/NEPC scores and student self-reported environmental behaviors using a short questionnaire.Findings - No significant differences were found in attitudes or behaviors based on school type. However the authors did observe a significant effect of gender and age on students’ attitudes, and a significant correlation of student attitudes in the NEP with students’ self-reports regarding air conditioning consumption.Originality/value - This study builds a foundation for cross-national studies and for evaluating the impact of curricula over time. Copyright © 2016 Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
  • Journal Articles

    10. Researching diversity in education in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2016
    Publisher: Common Ground Research Networks
    This introductory article for the special issue of “The International Journal of Diversity in Education” weaves the research interests and histories of members of the local organizing committee for the Fifteenth International Conference on Diversity in Organizations, Communities & Nations held at the University of Hong Kong (HKU) in July 2015. These members share a common research context—diversity and education in Hong Kong and the article aims to reflect that, although from diverse disciplinary backgrounds and concerns with different sectors and approaches to education, our collective interest centers on education and social justice in Hong Kong. Issues explored in K-12 schooling range across: inclusive education, Chinese language support for special education needs children and non-Chinese speaking (NCS) learners, and multicultural education. Issues explored in higher education focus on the academic workforce in Hong Kong, both in terms of internationalization policy and academic mobility in professional education, and with regard to gender equity and the role of women in the academy. Copyright © 2016 Common Ground Publishing, Susan M. Bridges, Liz Jackson, Patcy Yeung, Kit Chan, Ida A. C. Mok, Sarah Jane Aiston, All Rights Reserved
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