Interprofessional education has been widely integrated into health education curricula to enable students to work comfortably as members of a healthcare team. However, not much is known about the psychosocial mechanism that defines students' readiness for interprofessional learning. Drawing from social cognitive theory, we examined the pathway where collective efficacy was construed to influence subsequent students' satisfaction with team experiences, readiness for interprofessional learning, and attainment of interprofessional learning outcomes. Through path analysis, we examined data from 1,005 health and social care students who participated in a large-scale interprofessional education in Hong Kong. Results indicated that collective efficacy directly and indirectly predicted students' readiness for interprofessional learning and perception of attainment of IPE learning outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications of findings in the management of interprofessional education are discussed. Copyright © 2021 Taylor and Francis.