Physical education continuous professional development (PE-CPD) has been vaunted as a powerful influence on teachers' professional competence and subsequent student learning. Despite this proposition, there remains limited empirical evidence for the effect of teacher participation in CPD on student learning outcomes. In light of this void, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of an eight-month PE-CPD program on students' perceived physical literacy, motivation and enjoyment of physical education. A randomized control trial design was used to assign a sample of 65 physical education teachers from Hong Kong to the CPD and control intervention groups. Students' (n = 1,485) perceived physical literacy, motivation and enjoyment of physical education measures were collected across three phases of the program (post-program, eight-month follow-up, and 14-month follow-up). Repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to analyze changes in student learning outcomes across the three phases of the intervention. Results revealed low significant interaction effects of perceived physical literacy, motivation, and enjoyment across time depending on the participation level in CPD. The findings of this study provide an important addition to the extant literature on CPD, by revealing that teachers' commitment to participation in professional development may have a sustained influence on student affective learning outcomes. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier.