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  • Conference Papers

    1. An analysis of the role of Hong Kong school principals in supporting the teaching of civic education
    Document Type: Conference Papers
    Conference: 21st Annual Children’s Identity and Citizenship European Association Conference (CiCea 2019): Europe at a Crossroads: Rights, Values and Identity (2019: Charles University, Karolinum, Czech)
    Given substantial school autonomy in Hong Kong, different school leadership practices can yield different school environments for teachers, different degrees of teacher empowerment, and different civic teaching approaches. Principals can influence their school environment in civic learning and allocate resources to support civic education. Considerable attention has been given to the concept of ‘leading for learning’ (Goker, 2006) but there has been little attention given to civic learning in schools and how it might be facilitated by principals (Xu and Law, 2015). Given the volatile and uncertain external environment that students as future citizens face, civic learning must now be considered a priority. Kennedy, Li and Chan (2015) and Kennedy and Li (2017) have shown that school level factors can influence students’ civic learning, although the results are somewhat mixed, clearly this requires further investigation. This study extends this line of research by examining how principals create school civic teaching environments and how these influence teachers in their roles as civic educators. The results showed that the complex historical-cultural and socio-political contexts of Hong Kong have influenced school leadership when it comes to teaching civics, and the researcher has highlighted three main patterns of school leadership needed for civics teaching. When school leadership lacked a clear vision of citizenship education (pattern 1), most teachers were compliant and avoided dis-cussing sensitive political topics with their students. When school leadership mediated the diverse needs of students and balanced the different expectations of school stakeholders (pattern 2), there were both compliant and critical teachers. When school leadership had a clear vison of the school’s civic mission (pattern 3), the results differed across schools. These findings implied that principals have to significantly shift their understanding of the purposes of citizenship education
  • Book Chapters

    2. Education in partnership with third parties: Lessons from Hong Kong
    Document Type: Book Chapters
    Pages: 11-17
    Year published: 2019
    City published: Tokyo
    Publisher: Asian Productivity Organization
    Many societies, including Hong Kong, allow for outsourcing curriculum delivery to third parties using government funds (state-funded ed-outsourcing). Previous research conducted in other contexts at the respective levels of government and schools suggests that outsourced education perpetuates or even aggravates the educational inequity observed in overall education. However, empirical research documenting the interaction between government policies and school-level practices is very limited, especially in the Asian context. Considering the great role played by context in shaping the impact of a policy, there is a need for research that addresses this gap. This paper, drawing on government documents on relevant policies as well as reports on grant use allocated for ed-outsourcing from a third of Hong Kong secondary schools, shows that while the government is trying to ensure educational equity through ed-outsourcing, some equity-related issues have remained. It also identifies the factors contributing to the equity landscape around ed-outsourcing and presents policy suggestions to ensure the equity of education provided in partnership with third parties. Copyright © 2019 Asian Productivity Organization.
  • Journal Articles

    3. 港、澳地區的學校環境教育狀況及今後的設想
    By: 李子建
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: 首都師範大學學報 (社會科學版), 1997(6), 92-97, 1997
    Year published: 1997
    Publisher: 首都師範大學
    當前,在學校教育中環境教育日益受到重視。環境教育旨在讓學生認識環境、在環境中學習、關心環境。香港的《學校環境教育指引》確定了學校環境教育的目標,學校的正規課程和非正規課程均在環境教育中扮演重要角色。澳門教育司成人署積極組織各種環境教育活動,澳門教師對推行學校環境教育的目標和方向表示同意。進一步推動環境教育,應該強化持續發展的概念,在課程與教學上處理好地方環境教育與國情環境教育的關係,加強港澳地區與國內外同行的交流。 Copyright © 1997 首都師範大學學報編輯部.
  • Journal Articles

    4. 香港學前教育的現狀與發展趨勢探析
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: 教育導刊, 2007(3), 57-59, 2007
    Year published: 2007
    Publisher: 廣州市教育科學研究所
  • Journal Articles

    5. 從目標為本課程看香港教育變革的誤區和轉型
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: 華南師範大學學報(社會科學版), 2002(1), 82-86, 2002
    Year published: 2002
    Publisher: 華南師範大學
    成功的教育變革,取決於多種因素,包括:變革的規模和複雜性適中,易於操作;變革的策略是民主的、問題解決式的;通過各種靈活的方式發展教師的知識和信念;教師能夠從變革中獲取利益;學校行政的支持和教師文化的配合。成功變革的指標,應該是該項變革制度化、持續化,整合成為學校的常規。 Copyright © 2002 華南師範大學.
  • Journal Articles

    6. 課程與教學改革的展望:加強理論與實踐的對話
    By: 李子建
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: 北京大學教育評論, 2(2), 75-87, 2004
    Year published: 2004
    Publisher: 北京大學
    要進一步完善課程與教學改革,我們必需加強理論與實踐的對話。本文第一部分探討課程與教學理論與實踐之間的關係,以及兩者出現差距的原因;第二部分探討實踐者研究(或教師研究)作為強化理論與實踐的對話之一個取向,並根據有關文獻探究,將實踐者研究的目的、與學術研究的關聯、溝通方式組成一個初步架構,亦會討論香港一些實踐者研究(如行動研究)的例子;第三部分探討課程與教學理論工作者的研究取向如何在實踐層面有助於課程與教學改革,並對學術的理解,以及大學與學校建立夥伴關係的定位作一審視。To further improve curriculum and instructional reforms, we need to strengthen the dialogue between theory and practice. This article is divided into three parts. The first part explores the relationship between curriculum and instructional theories and practices as well as reasons behind the discrepancy between theory and practice. The second part discusses the practitioner research (or teacher research) as one of the approaches for reinforcing the dialogue between theory and practice. This part refers to Zeichner and Noffke’s literature review and formulates an initial framework based on the components of purposes, relevance with academic research, and modes of communication. Examples of practitioner research (e.g., action research) in Hong Kong will be discussed. The third part highlights how the research approach of experts on curriculum and instructional theories (scholars) enhances curriculum and instructional reforms as well as examines the understanding of scholarship (e.g., Boyer’s scholarships of discovery, integration, application and teaching) and the orientations of university and school partnerships. Copyright © 2004 北京大學.
  • Journal Articles

    7. Using Strategic Enrollment Management (SEM) approach to determine student satisfaction in self-financing higher education institutions: Evidence from Hong Kong
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Source: Journal of Economic & Management Perspectives, 12(1), 366-371, 2018
    Year published: 2018
    Publisher: International Economic Society, Ltd.
    To increase the competitive position in the higher education sector, management teams of self-financing institutions have to investigate critical factors influencing satisfaction of students studying at sub-degree and undergraduate degree levels so as to implement appropriate strategies in recruiting students. We adopted a model of Strategic Enrolment Management (SEM) to investigate student satisfaction on tertiary studies. 626 questionnaires were collected to investigate the critical factors affecting student satisfaction in studying self-financed programs. The findings revealed that marketing, admission, academic advising, career services, institutional research and peer influence are the critical factors affecting students' perceived satisfaction. The results provide insightful information and suggestions on how self-financing higher education institutions could improve student satisfaction and further strengthen their institutional strategies and management in increasing the competiveness. Copyright © 2018 International Economic Society.
  • Journal Articles

    8. How academic leaders facilitate knowledge sharing: A case of universities in Hong Kong
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2020
    Publisher: Emerald Publishing Limited
    Purpose - The objective of this study is to investigate the factors of two sub-processes – knowledge donating and knowledge collecting – of knowledge sharing in Hong Kong higher education context. This study examines the individual factors, organizational factors and technology factor of knowledge sharing. Individual factors include enjoyment in helping others and knowledge self-efficacy while organizational factors refer to the top management support, organizational rewards and organizational culture. The use of technology system is proposed to be the technology factor.Design/methodology/approach - Based on the literature review, this study develops a structural model representing the impact of six latent variables on knowledge donating and knowledge collecting processes Data from a questionnaire survey of 166 respondents from academics from Hong Kong higher education sector was used to analyze the model. PLS-SEM was adopted in this study.Findings - The result of the data analysis suggests enjoyment in helping others has a positive impact on both knowledge donating and knowledge collecting. For organizational factors, a trust and collaborative culture enhance both the sub-processes. The technology factor only contributes to the knowledge donating process. Several practical implications are provided to high education leaders, for instance, by establishing a trust and collaborative environment, academics are more eager to donate and collect knowledge.Originality/value - This paper provides insights for researchers to further understand how individual, organizational and technology factors affect two sub-processes of knowledge sharing. On the practical side, this study validated several critical factors to successful knowledge donation and knowledge collection. Copyright © 2020 Emerald Publishing Limited.
  • Journal Articles

    9. Influence of professional cultures and principal leadership effects on early-career teacher leadership development in Hong Kong schools
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2020
    Publisher: Routledge
    This paper aims to extend our understanding of the influence of school professional cultures and principal leadership effects on early-career teacher leadership aspiration, learning and development in the evolving hybrid of Western and Confucian cultures of Hong Kong. What are early-career teachers’ aspirations of leadership development in different professional cultures of the school? How do the principal leadership effects facilitate or hinder teacher leadership development in the professional culture? A multiple case study approach was adopted. Findings show that positive professional culture built by professional relationships between the principals and teachers and among teachers can stimulate early-career teacher leadership aspiration. The principal leadership effects can facilitate and hinder professional collaboration and support for the teacher leadership development in the Chinese school hierarchy of Hong Kong. This study contributes to unveiling in-depth understandings of teacher leadership aspiration, learning and development as the socially constructed experiences of the teachers in contrast to the professional culture highlighted in the school document. Insights gained from the study can inform the in-school progression of teacher leadership development in the school hierarchy. Implications for school achievement through continuing professional development are also highlighted. Copyright © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Journal Articles

    10. How do principals' practices reflect democratic leadership for inclusion in diverse school settings? A Hong Kong case study
    Document Type: Journal Articles
    Year published: 2020
    Publisher: Sage Publications Ltd.
    Research on principals' practice of democratic leadership for inclusion in schools has been undertaken in many parts of the world. This paper explores four principals' leadership journeys in response to social justice issues in increasingly diverse settings within public schools, in relation to demographic and cultural changes in Hong Kong. This research aims at exploring the issues in schools arising from contextual changes in the society, contextualising characteristics of principals' practices in relation to an emergent conception of democratic leadership practice in addressing the issues and identifying practical roles of democratic principal leadership in school transformation for diverse students' learning development. I adopted a cross-case study of the principals' leadership journeys through a theoretical lens of democratic leadership. The changes of demographic structure and cultural context and pressure from the central administration were the conditions of facilitating alternative practices of democratic principal leadership in a multicultural school context which evolved from the hybrid of Western and Confucian cultures in the city. These findings contribute to an international account of contextualising democratic leadership practices in a diverse Chinese school community. Copyright © 2020 The Author(s).