本文報告了新近發展的跨文化（中國人）個性測量表－青少年版（CPAI-A）對香港中學生人格特徵的性別差異評估結果。CPAI-A是在CPAI-2（成人版）基礎上發展而來的。研究發現性別是影響香港中學生人格特質的關鍵因素，並且性別差異在不同年齡組之間存在明顯的延續性和發展性趨勢。結合對已有研究的比較分析，文章從發展角度討論了人格特質的性別差異特性在青少年不同年齡組之間的情形。文章還基於CPAI-2中國人常模的數據，比較分析了青少年與成人之間人格特徵性別差異的特點。文章最後認為性別差異特徵是體現人格特質在青少年期的不同年齡階段，以及從青少年到成人階段的發展性與穩定性的重要內容。Gender difference has been studied extensively in the field of personality. Many studies have demonstrated significant gender difference in personality traits (e.g., self-esteem, extraversion) among people from different age groups and cultural contexts. Although the stabilities and changes of personality structure from adolescence to adulthood have also been investigated, few studies have explored gender difference in personality traits from a developmental perspective.
This paper compared gender difference in the Cross-cultural (Chinese) Personality Assessment Inventory – Adolescent Version (CPAI-A) among three age groups of secondary school students in Hong Kong. The CPAI-A was based on the adult version of the CPAI-2 which was developed using a combined emic-etic approach. The participants were 2,506 (1135 males, 1371 females) Hong Kong secondary school students aged 12 to 18 (M = 15.25, SD = 1.72) drawn from a representative sample of secondary schools. The participants were divided into three age groups which corresponded to the phases of the secondary school system in Hong Kong: 12–14 years, 15–16 years, and 17–18 years. We used MANOVA to examine the overall group differences, followed by further univariate analysis to examine the specific gender difference in personality traits among three age groups.
The results indicated that gender was a key factor that contributed to group difference in personality traits among secondary school students in Hong Kong. Three typical developmental features of gender difference in personality traits were found: (1) There were consistent gender differences in some general and clinical personality traits across the three groups.