The paper reports about a study on the knowledge of prospective mathematics teachers from China (Hong Kong and Mainland China) with regard to argumentation and proof as well as beliefs about using preformal and formal proofs in lessons based on a study design developed by Schwarz (2013). The study pointed out that the prospective teachers were generally strong in algebraic reflections and operations, but they lacked reflections on mathematical argumentation and proofs and their adequate teaching, for example, how to provide adequate feedback about proving approaches. Furthermore, differences concerning the acceptance of preformal proofs between prospective teachers from Hong Kong and Mainland China were found out in this study, which may be related to differences in the mathematics curriculum in these two regions. Implications for teaching proofs in geometry and algebra are discussed.

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