The purpose of this article is to explore the influence of a customized continuing professional development (PE-CPD) programme on PE teachers’ perceived physical literacy and efficacy beliefs in Hong Kong. Individual and focus group interviews were conducted to gain an in-depth understanding of the participants’ CPD experiences and to explore the programme’s influence on their perceived physical literacy and efficacy beliefs. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the interview data. Results revealed that all participants underwent certain immediate and intermediate changes in relation to their self-perceptions of physical literacy and teaching efficacy while completing the customised PE-CPD programme. It was concluded that stakeholders should address the importance of developing teachers’ physical literacy and self-efficacy through similar programmes, in order to provide quality physical education (QPE) in school curricula and in turn enhance students’ physical literacy. Copyright © 2021 Springer Nature B.V.